Currently, there is no three-dimensional structure of D-specific dehalogenase (DehD) in the protein database. We modeled DehD using ab initio technique, performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and docking of D-2-chloropropionate (D-2CP), D-2-bromopropionate (D-2BP), monochloroacetate (MCA), monobromoacetate (MBA), 2,2-dichloropropionate (2,2-DCP), d,l-2,3-dichloropropionate (d,l-2,3-DCP), and 3-chloropropionate (3-CP) into the DehD active site. The sequences of DehD and D-2-haloacid dehalogenase (HadD) from Pseudomonas putida AJ1 have 15% sequence similarity. The model had 80% of the amino acid residues in the most favored region when compared to the crystal structure of DehI from Pseudomonas putida PP3. Docking analysis revealed that Arg107, Arg134 and Tyr135 interacted with D-2CP, and Glu20 activated the water molecule for hydrolytic dehalogenation. Single residue substitutions at 25-30 °C showed that polar residues of DehD were stable when substituted with nonpolar residues and showed a decrease in activity within the same temperature range. The molecular dynamics simulation of DehD and its variants showed that in R134A variant, Arg107 interacted with D-2CP, while in Y135A, Gln221 and Arg231 interacted with D-2CP. It is our emphatic belief that the new model will be useful for the rational design of DehDs with enhanced potentials.
Dehalogenases continue to garner interest of the scientific community due to their potential applications in bioremediation of halogen-contaminated environment and in synthesis of various industrially relevant products. Example of such enzymes is DehL, an L-2-haloacid dehalogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) from Rhizobium sp. RC1 that catalyses the specific cleavage of halide ion from L-2-halocarboxylic acids to produce the corresponding D-2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Recently, the catalytic residues of DehL have been identified and its catalytic mechanism has been fully elucidated. However, the enantiospecificity determinants of the enzyme remain unclear. This information alongside a well-defined catalytic mechanism are required for rational engineering of DehL for substrate enantiospecificity. Therefore, using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations, the current study theoretically investigated the molecular basis of DehL enantiospecificity. The study found that R51L mutation cancelled out the dehalogenation activity of DehL towards it natural substrate, L-2-chloropropionate. The M48R mutation, however introduced a new activity towards D-2-chloropropionate, conveying the possibility of inverting the enantiospecificity of DehL from L-to d-enantiomer with a minimum of two simultaneous mutations. The findings presented here will play important role in the rational design of DehL dehalogenase for improving substrate utility.
The non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase DehE from Rhizobium sp. RC1 catalyzes the removal of the halide from α-haloalkanoic acid D,L-stereoisomers and, by doing so, converts them into hydroxyalkanoic acid L,D-stereoisomers, respectively. DehE has been extensively studied to determine its potential to act as a bioremediation agent, but its structure/function relationship has not been characterized. For this study, we explored the functional relevance of several putative active-site amino acids by site-specific mutagenesis. Ten active-site residues were mutated individually, and the dehalogenase activity of each of the 10 resulting mutants in soluble cell lysates against D- and L-2-chloropropionic acid was assessed. Interestingly, the mutants W34→A,F37→A, and S188→A had diminished activity, suggesting that these residues are functionally relevant. Notably, the D189→N mutant had no activity, which strongly implies that it is a catalytically important residue. Given our data, we propose a dehalogenation mechanism for DehE, which is the same as that suggested for other non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detailing a functional aspect for DehE, and our results could help pave the way for the bioengineering of haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases with improved catalytic properties.
Dehalogenases are of high interest due to their potential applications in bioremediation and in synthesis of various industrial products. DehL is an L-2-haloacid dehalogenase (EC 18.104.22.168) that catalyses the cleavage of halide ion from L-2-halocarboxylic acid to produce D-2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Although DehL utilises the same substrates as the other L-2-haloacid dehalogenases, its deduced amino acid sequence is substantially different (<25%) from those of the rest L-2-haloacid dehalogenases. To date, the 3D structure of DehL is not available. This limits the detailed understanding of the enzyme's reaction mechanism. The present work predicted the first homology-based model of DehL and defined its active site. The monomeric unit of the DehL constitutes α/β structure that is organised into two distinct structural domains: main and subdomains. Despite the sequence disparity between the DehL and other L-2-haloacid dehalogenases, its structural model share similar fold as the experimentally solved L-DEX and DehlB structures. The findings of the present work will play a crucial role in elucidating the molecular details of the DehL functional mechanism.
The l-2-haloacid dehalogenases (EC 22.214.171.124) specifically cleave carbon-halogen bonds in the L-isomers of halogenated organic acids. These enzymes have potential applications for the bioremediation and synthesis of various industrial products. One such enzyme is DehL, the l-2-haloacid dehalogenase from Rhizobium sp. RC1, which converts the L-isomers of 2-halocarboxylic acids into the corresponding D-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, its catalytic mechanism has not been delineated, and to enhance its efficiency and utility for environmental and industrial applications, knowledge of its catalytic mechanism, which includes identification of its catalytic residues, is required. Using ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations, molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area calculations, and classical molecular dynamic simulation of a three-dimensional model of DehL-l-2-chloropropionic acid complex, we predicted the catalytic residues of DehL and propose its catalytic mechanism. We found that when Asp13, Thr17, Met48, Arg51, and His184 were individually replaced with an alanine in silico, a significant decrease in the free energy of binding for the DehL-l-2-chloropropionic acid model complex was seen, indicating the involvement of these residues in catalysis and/or structural integrity of the active site. Furthermore, strong inter-fragment interaction energies calculated for Asp13 and L-2-chloropropionic acid, and for a water molecule and His184, and maintenance of the distances between atoms in the aforementioned pairs during the molecular dynamics run suggest that Asp13 acts as the nucleophile and His184 activates the water involved in DehL catalysis. The results of this study should be important for the rational design of a DehL mutant with improved catalytic efficiency.