Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading neurodegenerative disorder affecting memory and learning of aged people. Hypercholesterolemia had been implicated as one of the stark hallmarks of AD. Recent AD control guidelines have suggested lifestyle modification to slow down the progression of AD. In this regard, medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum seems apt. In the present study, hot water extract of G. lucidum (200 mg/kg body weight) was fed to the hypercholesterolemic and AD model rats for 8 weeks. Nonspatial memory and learning abilities of the model animals was assessed using novel object recognition (NOR) test, rotarod test, and locomotor/open-field test. Then, the animals were sacrificed and transmission electron micrograph (TEM) view of the hippocampal neurons was assessed. In all the nonspatial memory and learning tests, the G. lucidum HWE fed rats performed better indicating improved memory and learning abilities. TEM view showed regular arrangement of the neurons in the G. lucidum HWE fed rats compared with those of the deranged arrangement of the AD rats. G. lucidum might have aided in restoring the memory and learning abilities of the AD model animals through maintaining neuronal structure and function. Thus, G. lucidum could be suggested as a medicotherapeutic agent against AD.
The current study has been designed to examine the effect of multifunctional drug therapy on carbofuran induced acute (2.187 mg/kg, s.c.) and sub-acute (0.2187 mg/kg, s.c.) neurotoxicity in male wistar rats. Drug treatment which includes nimodipine (Ca(2+) channel blocker), diazepam, ropinirole (dopamine agonist) and GSPE (antioxidant) was started 2h after carbofuran administration. Morris water maze was employed for aiming spatial memory. Narrow beam walk and rotarod were employed for testing motor functions. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes were also estimated. Carbofuran treatment resulted in significant development of cognitive and motor functions manifested as impairment in learning and memory along with increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrite levels and decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, and mitochondrial complexes. The standard antidote therapy (atropine) was not able to provide neuroprotection but was able to provide symptomatic relief. The multifunctional drug therapy attenuated carbofuran induced cognitive and motor dysfunction, acetylcholinesterase activity and other biochemical parameters. The triple combination in sub-acute study may be avoided in future as two drug combinations provide adequate neuroprotection. Thus it can be concluded that standard antidotal therapy may not provide neuroprotection while the multifunctional drug therapy offers neuroprotection against carbofuran and may dramatically increase survival and life quality.
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass. is a medicinal herbaceous plant that is commonly used by the Malay community in Malaysia to relieve pain often associated with mouth ulcers, toothache, sore throat, and stomach ache.
Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of GABA-B receptor modulation in experimental models of MPTP-induced PD. MPTP was administered repeatedly on 1st, 7th and 14th day intranigrally for the induction of PD in Male Wistar rats. Baclofen (10 and 20mg/kg) and GABA-B antagonist CGP35348 (10mg/kg) were given after induction of PD for 14 days. Different behavioural tasks were performed during 1st, 14th, 21st, 28th days after MPTP injection and biochemical parameters were estimated on day 28th. Central administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor behaviour and marked increase of oxidative damage LPO and GSH in striatum and cortex. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-β were significantly increased in striatum region of MPTP treated rats. However, post treatment with baclofen significantly improved the motor abnormalities and attenuated the oxidative damage and neuro-inflammation in MPTP treated rats. CGP35348, GABA-B receptor antagonist, reversed the protective effect of baclofen GABA-B receptor play role in the neuroprotection. The present study concluded that baclofen produce beneficial effect against MPTP induced PD like symptoms rats through GABAergic mechanism.
Poly (lactide‑co‑glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are biodegradable carriers that participate in the transport of neuroprotective drugs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Targeted brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) delivery across the BBB could provide neuroprotection in brain injury. We tested the neuroprotective effect of PLGA nanoparticle‑bound BDNF in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model of ischemia in rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO. Four hours after pMCAO, two groups were intravenously treated with BDNF and NP‑BDNF, respectively. Functional outcome was assessed at 2 and 24 h after pMCAO, using the modified neurologic severity score (mNSS) and rotarod performance tests. Following functional assessments, rats were euthanized blood was taken to assess levels of the neurobiomarkers neuron‑specific enolase and S100 calcium‑binding protein β (S100β), and the brain was evaluated to measure the infarct volume. The NP‑BDNF‑treated group showed significant improvement in mNSS compared with pMCAO and BDNF‑treated groups and showed improved rotarod performance. The infarct volume in rats treated with NP‑BDNFs was also significantly smaller. These results were further corroborated by correlating differences in estimated NSE and S100β. NP‑BDNFs exhibit a significant neuroprotective effect in the pMCAO model of ischemia in rats.