Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Field JW
    Br Med J, 1950;1:908.
    Among the losses sustained by the Institute for Medical Research in Malaya during the Japanese occupation were the portraits of several of the former directors. The loss is unfortunate, as we had hoped to make use of a fifty-year series of portraits for a historical rne'noir planned for the Institute's half-centenary this year. The missing portraits are those of Dr. Hamilton-Wright, M.D. (McGill), and Dr. Henry Fraser, M.D., M.R.C.P. Dr. Wright retired to America after leaving Malaya in 1903 and died in Washington, D.C., in 1917. Dr. Fraser was born, I believe, in Aberdeen. He retired from Malaya in 1916 to live in Scotland, where he died in 1930. I would be grateful to any of your readers who could put me in touch with surviving relatives.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  2. Kling J
    Nat Biotechnol, 2012 Feb;30(2):128-31.
    PMID: 22318024 DOI: 10.1038/nbt.2111
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  3. Thompson B, Baird D
    J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw, 1967 Jun;74(3):329-38.
    PMID: 6026612
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  4. Sutan R, Campbell D, Prescott GJ, Smith WC
    J Perinatol, 2010 May;30(5):311-8.
    PMID: 19829298 DOI: 10.1038/jp.2009.158
    To determine the factors contributing to unexplained antepartum stillbirth in Scotland.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland/epidemiology
  5. Arumugam K, Templeton AA
    Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol, 1992 May;32(2):164-5.
    PMID: 1520204
    The pelvic findings of 202 infertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were compared to that of 464 infertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy in Aberdeen, United Kingdom. Endometriosis was significantly more common in the women from Kuala Lumpur (51% against 22%, p less than 0.001). There was however no significant difference seen in the severity of the disease (AFS Classification, 1985). These findings confirm our clinical impression that endometriosis is more common in Asian women when compared to Caucasian women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland/epidemiology
  6. Santiago C, Stansfield J
    Int J Lang Commun Disord, 1998;33 Suppl:102-7.
    PMID: 10343674
    This study investigates how prioritisation in health services have influenced speech and language therapy (SLT) services in Scotland in prioritising their caseload. Additionally, it evaluates how current prioritisation systems may contribute towards the development of the SLT service in Malaysia. Health, education and social agencies in Malaysia were contacted and a literature review was conducted. Information on prioritisation systems used in Malaysia was unavailable. Prioritisation systems from seven SLT departments within Scotland were investigated, of which three SLT managers took part in semi-structured interviews. The findings show that prioritisation is influenced by a combination of factors and that the principles could only be applied to the Malaysian SLT service if consideration is given to the political, economical, social, geographical and cultural factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  7. Sheffield J, Hussain A, Coleshill P
    J Manag Med, 1999;13(4-5):263-4.
    PMID: 10787497
    The NHS faces a crisis in terms of staffing and recruitment. Many of the ethnic minority GPs in inner city areas throughout the UK are coming up to retirement age, and there is an insufficient supply of trainees to fill estimated vacancies. Over 2,000 nursing vacancies exist across the UK, and recruitment to the profession and retention within the profession are poor. Nurses have been recruited from overseas for the past 40 years, and are currently being recruited from Finland, Malaysia, and the West Indies, whilst doctors are being sought in India, Pakistan and Africa. Overseas recruitment is not a new phenomenon, and numerous studies have been carried out to examine equal opportunities and racial discrimination within the NHS. The aim of this paper was to examine ethnicity and equal opportunities within the Scottish NHS and record the levels of organisational awareness of ethnicity and equal opportunities' issues. The paper also examines the link between health service delivery to ethnic minorities and internal cultural attitudes to staff.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  8. Chua PY, Day AC, Lai KL, Hall N, Tan LL, Khan K, et al.
    Br J Ophthalmol, 2018 Apr;102(4):539-543.
    PMID: 28794074 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310725
    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence, and describe the clinical features and short-term clinical outcomes of acute angle closure (AAC).

    METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AAC were identified prospectively over a 12-month period (November 2011 to October 2012) by active surveillance through the Scottish Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit reporting system. Data were collected at case identification and at 6 months follow-up.

    RESULTS: There were 114 cases (108 patients) reported, giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases (95% CI 1.8 to 2.6) or 2 patients (95% CI 1.7 to 2.4) per 1 00 000 in the whole population in Scotland. Precipitating factors were identified in 40% of cases. Almost one in five cases was associated with topical dilating drops. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation ranged from 6/6 to perception of light. The mean presenting intraocular pressure (IOP) was 52 mm Hg (SD 11). Almost 30% cases had a delayed presentation of 3 or more days. At 6 months follow-up, 75% had BCVA of 6/12 or better and 30% were found to have glaucoma at follow-up. Delayed presentation (≥3 days) was associated with higher rate of glaucoma at follow-up (22.6% vs 60.8%, p<0.001), worse VA (0.34 vs 0.74 LogMAR, p<0.0001) and need for more topical medication (0.52 vs 1.2, p=0.003) to control IOP.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of AAC in Scotland is relatively low compared with the Far East countries, but in line with previous European data. Almost one in five cases were associated with pupil dilation for retinal examination.

    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  9. Mohd Khairuddin AN, Bernabé E, Delgado-Angulo EK
    Health Qual Life Outcomes, 2021 Apr 07;19(1):115.
    PMID: 33827591 DOI: 10.1186/s12955-021-01757-1
    BACKGROUND: Most studies on social mobility and oral health have focused on movement between generations (intergenerational mobility) rather than movement within an individual's own lifetime (intragenerational mobility). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intragenerational social mobility from early to middle adulthood and self-rated oral health.

    METHODS: This study used data from 6524 participants of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study, an ongoing population-based birth cohort of individuals born in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants' socioeconomic position was indicated by occupational social class at age 26 and 46 years (the first and latest adult waves, respectively). Self-rated oral health was measured at age 46 years. The association between social mobility and adult oral health was assessed using conventional regression models and diagonal reference models, adjusting for gender, ethnicity, country of residence and residence area.

    RESULTS: Over a fifth of participants (22.2%) reported poor self-rated oral health at age 46 years. In conventional regression analysis, the odds ratios for social mobility varied depending on whether they were adjusted for social class of origin or destination. In addition, all social trajectories had greater odds of reporting poor oral health than non-mobile adults in class I/II. In diagonal reference models, both upward (Odds Ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.63-0.99) and downward mobility (0.90; 95% CI 0.71-1.13) were inversely associated with poor self-rated oral health. The origin weight was 0.48 (95% CI 0.33-0.63), suggesting that social class of origin was as important as social class of destination.

    CONCLUSION: This longitudinal analysis showed that intragenerational social mobility from young to middle adulthood was associated with self-rated oral health, independent of previous and current social class.

    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  10. Mazlan-Kepli W, Dawson J, Berry C, Walters M
    Heart, 2019 01;105(1):67-74.
    PMID: 30030335 DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313148
    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cardiovascular events are increased after cessation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to explore predictors for recurrent events after DAPT cessation during long-term follow-up.

    METHODS: We did a retrospective observational cohort study. We included consecutive people with ACS who were discharged from Scottish hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 and who received DAPT after discharge followed by antiplatelet monotherapy. The rates of cardiovascular events were assessed during each 90-day period of DAPT treatment and 90-day period after stopping DAPT. Cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of death, ACS, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular events following DAPT cessation.

    RESULTS: 1340 patients were included (62% male, mean age 64.9 (13.0) years). Cardiovascular events occurred in 15.7% (n=211) during the DAPT period (mean DAPT duration 175.1 (155.3) days) and in 16.7% (n=188) following DAPT cessation (mean of 2.7 years follow-up). Independent predictors for a cardiovascular event following DAPT cessation were age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; p<0.001), DAPT duration (HR 0.997; 95% CI 0.995 to 0.998; p<0.001) and having revascularisation therapy during the index admission (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; p=0.005).

    CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cardiovascular events was not significantly increased in the early period post-DAPT cessation compared with later periods in this ACS population. Increasing age, DAPT duration and lack of revascularisation therapy were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up after DAPT cessation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland/epidemiology
  11. Suresh K, Smith HV, Tan TC
    Appl Environ Microbiol, 2005 Sep;71(9):5619-20.
    PMID: 16151162
    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  12. Johnston WS, Munro D, Reilly WJ, Sharp JC
    J Hyg (Lond), 1981 Dec;87(3):525-8.
    PMID: 7310130
    In August, 1980 a rare serotype S. zanzibar was isolated in the North of Scotland from a man home on leave from Malaysia, whence he returned in November having been bacteriologically negative 2 months previously. In December however, S. zanzibar was isolated from a bulk milk sample taken at a nearby dairy farm. No illness occurred among milking cows which had been brought inside from pasture in mid-October. Since 1972 a variety of different salmonella serotypes had been identified in cattle, milk and other samples at this farm, with seagulls being implicated as the vector transmitting infection from the sewage of a local town on to farmland and an adjacent loch. Although water from this source has not been used in recent years for drinking by cattle, it is utilized for washing floors within the dairy premises. Since 1979, following an outbreak affecting consumers, all milk produced at the farm has been pasteurized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  13. Baruah DR
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Sep;38(3):228-31.
    PMID: 6672566
    Gall stone is responsible for about 1% of total small bowel obstruction, 1.2 and recurrent gall stone ileus is even more unusual. 3 Gall stone ileus is caused by the impaction of the stone in bowel lumen. It was first described in a patient examined at autopsy by Bartholin in 1654. This paper based on unusual recurrent intestinal obstructions by a gall stone. The patient presented with large bowel obstruction and it was due to a large gall stone impacted in the pelvic colon. Four months later the same patient presented with small bowel obstruction due to large gall stone impacted in the terminal part of the ileum at 61 cms from the ileo-caecal valve. Gall stone obstruction of the colon is one of the rare complications. This rare complication usually occurs in elderly females' in whom there is frequently an underlying pathological condition at the site of obstruction in the colon. The calculus usually migrates through a cholecysto-colonic fistula in case of large bowel obstruction. In case of a small bowel obstruction the calculus usually migrates through a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. Diagnosis can be established by plain X-rays of the abdomen where there is gas shadow in the biliary system, sometimes the gall stone can be seen if it is radio opague (10-16% gall stone is radio opaque) at the site of obstruction. Otherwise diagnosis is always
    made at laparotomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
    Med J Malaysia, 1964 Mar;18:205-11.
    PMID: 14157187
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  15. Mohamed IN, Helms PJ, McLay JS
    Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 2012 Dec;111(6):396-401.
    PMID: 22734606 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2012.00917.x
    Drug switching is a common medical practice. It indicates continuation of treatment regardless of the reason why the original therapy was stopped and switched. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a novel method for determining drug switching from routinely acquired NHS health data and to explore the aspect of continuation of care for patients. Patients who were first prescribed ramipril, simvastatin and an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) between 1 March 2004 and 28 February 2007 and discontinued their medication within 6 months of the index prescription were identified from the PTI database. The identified patients were then categorized into three groups: i) patients who were switched to a different drug for the same medical condition, ii) patients who were being prescribed with other types of antihypertensive/lipid-regulating drug prior to the initiation of study; and iii) patients who were without any continuation of care or therapy. Twenty percent (808), 29%(1429) and 14%(455) of the identified patients discontinued ramipril, simvastatin and ARB, respectively, within 6 months of an index prescription. Among the ramipril discontinuation group, 36.4% of the patients were switched to another antihypertensive, while another 31.6% of them were without continuation of care. In patients discontinuing ARB, 30.6% were switched, while another 30.1% were without continuation of treatment. In patients discontinuing simvastatin, 28.8% were switched to another lipid-regulating medicine, while another 63.1% of them were without continuation of care. The results of this study confirm that primary care prescribing databases can be used to determine drug-switching information and continuation of care/therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  16. Freeman MA, Sommerville C
    Parasit Vectors, 2011;4:231.
    PMID: 22166354 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-231
    A microsporidian hyperparasite, Desmozoon lepeophtherii, of the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis (salmon louse), infecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), was first discovered in the west of Scotland in 2000. Heavily infected salmon lice are easily recognised as they have large opaque inclusions distributed throughout the body. The prevalence of salmon lice with visible signs of microsporidiosis can be up to 10% of the population from certain farm sites. The microsporidian was also isolated from the host Atlantic salmon suggesting it may have a two host life cycle. The authors believe that the infection in immunocompetent salmon may be latent, becoming acute during periods of infection with another pathogen or during sexual maturation. Since its first discovery in Scotland, Desmozoon lepeophtherii has been subsequently reported from Norway, and more recently from the Pacific coast of North America.
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  17. Jamil NA, Yew MH, Noor Hafizah Y, Gray SR, Poh BK, Macdonald HM
    Public Health Nutr, 2018 12;21(17):3118-3124.
    PMID: 30176950 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018002057
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the contributions of UVB exposure and diet to total vitamin D among Asians living in Kuala Lumpur (KL) and Aberdeen (AB).

    DESIGN: Longitudinal study.

    SETTING: UVB exposure (using polysulfone film badges) and skin colour and dietary vitamin D intake (by web-based questionnaire) were measured at each season in AB and during south-west (SWM) and north-east monsoons (NEM) in KL.

    SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifteen Asians in KL and eighty-five Asians in AB aged 20-50 years.

    RESULTS: Median summer UVB exposure of Asians in AB (0·25 SED/d) was higher than UVB exposure for the KL participants (SWM=0·20 SED/d, P=0·02; NEM= 0·14 SED/d, P<0·01). UVB exposure was the major source of vitamin D in KL year-round (60%) but only during summer in AB (59%). Median dietary vitamin D intake was higher in AB (3·50 µg/d (140 IU/d)), year-round, than in KL (SWM=2·05 µg/d (82 IU/d); NEM=1·83 µg/d (73 IU/d), P<0·01). Median total vitamin D (UVB plus diet) was higher in AB only during summer (8·45 µg/d (338 IU/d)) compared with KL (SWM=6·03 µg/d (241 IU/d), P=0·04; NEM=5·35 µg/d (214 IU/d), P<0·01), with a comparable intake across the full year (AB=5·75 µg/d (230 IU/d); KL=6·15 µg/d (246 IU/d), P=0·78).

    CONCLUSIONS: UVB exposure among Asians in their home country is low. For Asians residing at the northerly latitude of Scotland, acquiring vitamin D needs from UVB exposure alone (except in summer) may be challenging due to low ambient UVB in AB (available only from April to October).

    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
  18. Pakianathan MR, Kamarulzaman A, Ismail R, McMillan A, Scott GR
    AIDS, 1999 Sep 10;13(13):1787-8.
    PMID: 10509585
    Matched MeSH terms: Scotland
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