Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 492 in total

  1. Khoo KL, Tan H, Liew YM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Jun;55(2):249-58.
    PMID: 19839155
    This paper highlights two cases of paediatric familial hyperlipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia). The first case was an 11 year old Chinese boy, a "homozygous" (Type II) hypercholesterolaemic patient. He had extremely high blood cholesterol level (19.4 mmol/l), severe multiple xanthoma and abnormal resting electrocardiogram. He had repeated heart attacks and died at the age of 15 in spite of early intervention, treatment and follow up. The second case was a 2 1/2 years old girl who had severe hypertriglyceridaemia. She had raised cholesterol (6.2 mmol/l) and extremely high triglycerides (14.8 mmol/l). The patient did not resemble Type I lipoproteinaemia which is classically seen in childhood. On the contrary, the patient exhibited clinical and biochemical manifestations of a Type V lipoproteinaemia which often occurs in adults. Apart from a Type V lipoprotein pattern, the patient had low post hepatic lipase activity (PHLA), Apo C II and Apo E2/E3 phenotype. In addition, the lipid profile of her family members (both the parents and brothers) had raised triglycerides and thus ruled out the Type I lipoprotein inheritance pattern, which is an autosomal recessive condition. The issue of paediatric hyperlipidaemia, their management and treatments are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  2. Dreyfus GD, Martin RP, Chan KM, Dulguerov F, Alexandrescu C
    J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2015 Jun 2;65(21):2331-6.
    PMID: 26022823 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.011
    The assessment of the etiology and severity of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) has many limitations, especially when tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is more than severe. Instead of relying solely on TR severity, a new approach not only takes into account the severity of TR, but also pays strict attention to tricuspid annular dilation (size), the mode of tricuspid leaflet coaptation, and tricuspid leaflet tethering-factors often influenced by right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction. To simplify things, we propose a new staging system for functional tricuspid valve pathology using 3 parameters that may more accurately reflect the severity of the disease: TR severity, annular dilation, and mode of leaflet coaptation (extent of tethering). We believe that by utilizing these parameters, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons will be offered a better system for appraisal and decision-making in FTR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  3. Chin SP, Ng CK, Sim KH
    Indian Heart J, 2007 May-Jun;59(3):211-3.
    PMID: 19124927
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  4. Golder V, Kandane-Rathnayake R, Hoi AY, Huq M, Louthrenoo W, An Y, et al.
    Arthritis Res. Ther., 2016 11 09;18(1):260.
    PMID: 27829463 DOI: 10.1186/s13075-016-1163-2
    BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic heterogeneous disease with considerable burden from disease activity and damage. A novel clinical treatment target in the form of the lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) has been recently reported, with retrospective validation showing that time spent in LLDAS translates to reduced damage accrual. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency and identify the predictors of attaining LLDAS in a large multinational cohort of patients with SLE.
    METHODS: Data were collected at the recruitment visit in patients with SLE enrolled in a longitudinal study in nine countries. Data were analysed cross-sectionally against the recently published definition of LLDAS, and the frequency and characteristics associated with presence of LLDAS were determined. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LLDAS.
    RESULTS: Of the 1846 patients assessed, criteria for LLDAS were met by 44 %. Patients with shorter disease duration were less likely to be in LLDAS (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.19-0.49, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  5. Mohd Roslani AD, Tay ST, Puthucheary SD, Rukumani DV, Sam IC
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2014 Dec;91(6):1176-8.
    PMID: 25246695 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0354
    The predictors of severe disease or death were determined for 85 melioidosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were male, > 40 years old, and diabetic. Severe disease or death occurred in 28 (32.9%) cases. Lower lymphocyte counts and positive blood cultures were significant independent predictors of severe disease, but age, presentations with pneumonia, inappropriate empirical antibiotics, or flagellin types of the infecting isolates were not. Knowledge of local predictors of severe disease is useful for clinical management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  6. Cardosa MS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):139-41.
    PMID: 16898301
    Pain remains as one of the most common reasons for visits to a doctor. The paper by Zalinawati et all published in this issue of the Journal confirmed this in two primary care settings, showing that a complaint of pain was recorded in almost a third of patients, similar to the prevalence reported in European studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  7. Mardzuki AI, Abdullah J, Ghazaime G, Ariff AR, Ghazali M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Mar;58(1):115-9.
    PMID: 14556336 MyJurnal
    We report three cases of large occipito-encephaloceles that were managed in the Neurosciences Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over the last 5 years. All patients had pre-operative MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) evolution and mapping of the sagittal sinus tract. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all three patients were initially diverted by means of ventricular shunt two weeks prior to shunt removal. The slow drainage of CSF prevented electrolyte and volume disturbances due to sudden decompression during their definitive occipital encephalocele operations. After 3 years follow-up, all these patients are progressing well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  8. Wan Hassan WN, Yusoff Y, Mardi NA
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2017 Jan;151(1):209-218.
    PMID: 28024776 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.08.019
    INTRODUCTION: Rapid prototyping models can be reconstructed from stereolithographic digital study model data to produce hard-copy casts. In this study, we aimed to compare agreement and accuracy of measurements made with rapid prototyping and stone models for different degrees of crowding.

    METHODS: The Z Printer 450 (3D Systems, Rock Hill, SC) reprinted 10 sets of models for each category of crowding (mild, moderate, and severe) scanned using a structured-light scanner (Maestro 3D, AGE Solutions, Pisa, Italy). Stone and RP models were measured using digital calipers for tooth sizes in the mesiodistal, buccolingual, and crown height planes and for arch dimension measurements. Bland-Altman and paired t test analyses were used to assess agreement and accuracy. Clinical significance was set at ±0.50 mm.

    RESULTS: Bland-Altman analysis showed the mean bias of measurements between the models to be within ±0.15 mm (SD, ±0.40 mm), but the 95% limits of agreement exceeded the cutoff point of ±0.50 mm (lower range, -0.81 to -0.41 mm; upper range, 0.34 to 0.76 mm). Paired t tests showed statistically significant differences for all planes in all categories of crowding except for crown height in the moderate crowding group and arch dimensions in the mild and moderate crowding groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: The rapid prototyping models were not clinically comparable with conventional stone models regardless of the degree of crowding.

    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  9. Soe HJ, Yong YK, Al-Obaidi MMJ, Raju CS, Gudimella R, Manikam R, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Feb;97(5):e9713.
    PMID: 29384851 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009713
    Dengue virus is one of the most widespread flaviviruses that re-emerged throughout recent decades. The progression from mild dengue to severe dengue (SD) with the complications such as vascular leakage and hemorrhage increases the fatality rate of dengue. The pathophysiology of SD is not entirely clear. To investigate potential biomarkers that are suggestive of pathogenesis of SD, a small panel of serum samples selected from 1 healthy individual, 2 dengue patients without warning signs (DWS-), 2 dengue patients with warning signs (DWS+), and 5 patients with SD were subjected to a pilot analysis using Sengenics Immunome protein array. The overall fold changes of protein expressions and clustering heat map revealed that PFKFB4, TPM1, PDCL3, and PTPN20A were elevated among patients with SD. Differential expression analysis identified that 29 proteins were differentially elevated greater than 2-fold in SD groups than DWS- and DWS+. From the 29 candidate proteins, pathways enrichment analysis also identified insulin signaling and cytoskeleton pathways were involved in SD, suggesting that the insulin pathway may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  10. Low GKK, Kagize J, Faull KJ, Azahar A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2019 10;24(10):1169-1197.
    PMID: 31373098 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13294
    OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnostic test accuracy and predictive value of statistical models in differentiating the severity of dengue infection.

    METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.

    CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index
  11. James RJ, O'Malley C, Tunney RJ
    J Gambl Stud, 2016 Dec;32(4):1155-1173.
    PMID: 26892198
    Analyses of disordered gambling assessment data have indicated that commonly used screens appear to measure latent categories. This stands in contrast to the oft-held assumption that problem gambling is at the extreme of a continuum. To explore this further, we report a series of latent class analyses of a number of prevalent problem gambling assessments (PGSI, SOGS, DSM-IV Pathological Gambling based assessments) in nationally representative British surveys between 1999 and 2012, analysing data from nearly fifty thousand individuals. The analyses converged on a three class model in which the classes differed by problem gambling severity. This identified an initial class of gamblers showing minimal problems, a additional class predominantly endorsing indicators of preoccupation and loss chasing, and a third endorsing a range of disordered gambling criteria. However, there was considerable evidence to suggest that classes of intermediate and high severity disordered gamblers differed systematically in their responses to items related to loss of control, and not simply on the most 'difficult' items. It appeared that these differences were similar between assessments. An important exception to this was one set of DSM-IV criteria based analyses using a specific cutoff, which was also used in an analysis that identified an increase in UK problem gambling prevalence between 2007 and 2010. The results suggest that disordered gambling has a mixed latent structure, and that present assessments of problem gambling appear to converge on a broadly similar construct.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  12. John DV, Lin YS, Perng GC
    J. Biomed. Sci., 2015;22:83.
    PMID: 26462910 DOI: 10.1186/s12929-015-0191-6
    Dengue virus infection presents a wide spectrum of manifestations including asymptomatic condition, dengue fever (DF), or severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in affected individuals. The early prediction of severe dengue in patients without any warning signs who may later develop severe DHF is very important to choose appropriate intensive supportive therapy since available vaccines for immunization are yet to be approved. Severe dengue responses include T and B cell activation and apoptosis, cytokine storm, hematologic disorders and complement activation. Cytokines, complement and other unidentified factors may transiently act on the endothelium and alter normal fluid barrier function of the endothelial cells and cause plasma leakage. In this review, the host factors such as activated immune and endothelial cells and their products which can be utilized as biomarkers for severe dengue disease are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  13. Thong KS, Chee KY, Ng CG, Walterfang M, Velakoulis D
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2016 Sep;8(3):238-40.
    PMID: 26615809 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12227
    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  14. Noor NM, Nik Hussain NH, Sulaiman Z, Abdul Razak A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):9S-18S.
    PMID: 26069164 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515589811
    Maternal morbidity is a concept of increasing interest in maternal health. This review aims to assess the contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity over the past one decade worldwide. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted. The search was restricted to articles written in the English language published from 2004 to 2013. Qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 24 full articles were retrieved of which 9 cohort, 7 case-control, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 5 unmentioned designs were included. The contributory factors were divided into 3 components: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) medical and gynecological history, and (c) past and present obstetric performance. This review informs emerging knowledge regarding contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity and has implications for education, clinical practice and intervention. It enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy for maternal morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  15. Wong RS, Ismail NA, Tan CC
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2015 Apr;44(4):127-32.
    PMID: 26041636
    INTRODUCTION: Intensive care unit (ICU) prognostic models are predominantly used in more developed nations such as the United States, Europe and Australia. These are not that popular in Southeast Asian countries due to costs and technology considerations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) IV model in a single centre Malaysian ICU.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the single centre ICU in Hospital Sultanah Aminah (HSA) Malaysia. External validation of APACHE IV involved a cohort of 916 patients who were admitted in 2009. Model performance was assessed through its calibration and discrimination abilities. A first-level customisation using logistic regression approach was also applied to improve model calibration.

    RESULTS: APACHE IV exhibited good discrimination, with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.78. However, the model's overall fit was observed to be poor, as indicated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (Ĉ = 113, P <0.001). Predicted in-ICU mortality rate (28.1%) was significantly higher than the actual in-ICU mortality rate (18.8%). Model calibration was improved after applying first-level customisation (Ĉ = 6.39, P = 0.78) although discrimination was not affected.

    CONCLUSION: APACHE IV is not suitable for application in HSA ICU, without further customisation. The model's lack of fit in the Malaysian study is attributed to differences in the baseline characteristics between HSA ICU and APACHE IV datasets. Other possible factors could be due to differences in clinical practice, quality and services of health care systems between Malaysia and the United States.

    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  16. Vijayakumar P, Nagarajan M, Ramli A
    J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil, 2012;25(4):225-30.
    PMID: 23220803 DOI: 10.3233/BMR-2012-0337
    Osteitis pubis among soccer athletes is a disabling painful condition and it is difficult to manage without integrating a multimodal treatment approach. There is limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in treating Osteitis pubis especially when it progress to a chronic painful condition. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the successful multimodal physiotherapeutic management for a 15-year old soccer athlete diagnosed with stage-IV Osteitis pubis. Land and water based active core muscle strengthening exercises, Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques (PNF) and Manual Therapy are some of the essential components incorporated in multimodal intervention approach with emphasis to water based strength and endurance training exercises. The athlete was able to make progress to a successful recovery from his chronic painful condition and accomplished the clearly established clinical outcomes during each phase of rehabilitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  17. Boo NY, Ishak S
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2007 Apr;43(4):297-302.
    PMID: 17444833
    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of different levels of bilirubin measured by the transcutaneous bilirubinometer Bilicheck on forehead and sternum for predicting severe hyperbilirubinaemia of total serum bilirubin (TSB)>or=300 micromol/L in Malay, Chinese and Indian infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  18. Quek KF, Low WY, Razack AH, Chua CB, Loh CS, Dublin N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2002 Dec;57(4):445-53.
    PMID: 12733169
    To validate the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15) in Malaysian population. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using the test-retest method and Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size index. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha value = 0.75 to 0.90) Test-retest correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient were highly significant (ICC = 0.75 and above) and a high degree of sensitivity and specificity was observed. The IIEF-15 is suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in the Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  19. Chan A, Malhotra C, Do YK, Malhotra R, Ostbye T
    Eur J Pain, 2011 Nov;15(10):1094-9.
    PMID: 21646030 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.05.006
    The objective of this paper is to test and correct for systematic differences in reporting of pain severity among older adults by age, gender, ethnic group and socio-economic status using anchoring vignettes. Data from a national survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (aged 60 years and over) conducted in 2009 was used. Respondents were asked to rate the severity of their own pain as well as that of others described in the vignettes on a five-point scale ranging from none to extreme. An ordered probit model was used to estimate the coefficients of the independent variables (age, gender, ethnic group, education, housing type) on self-reported pain. Reporting heterogeneity in pain severity was then corrected using a Hierarchical Ordered Probit model. The results showed that before correcting for reporting heterogeneity, women, those older, and those of Malay ethnicity reported greater severity of pain, while there was no association of reported pain severity with housing type and education. However, after correcting for reporting heterogeneity, while women and those older were found to have an even greater severity of pain than what they had reported, Malays were found to have a lower severity of pain than what they had reported. We conclude that there are systematic differences in reporting pain severity by age, gender and ethnic group. We propose that pain management may be improved if medical professionals take into account reporting heterogeneity for pain severity among various population sub-groups in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
  20. Ramli R, Malik AS, Hani AF, Jamil A
    Skin Res Technol, 2012 Feb;18(1):1-14.
    PMID: 21605170 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0846.2011.00542.x
    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents a comprehensive review of acne grading and measurement. Acne is a chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous units, with excess sebum production, follicular epidermal hyperproliferation, inflammation and Propionibacterium acnes activity. Most patients are affected with acne vulgaris, which is the prevalent type of acne. Acne vulgaris consists of comedones (whitehead and blackhead), papules, pustules, nodules and cysts.
    OBJECTIVES: To review and identify the issues for acne vulgaris grading and computational assessment methods. To determine the future direction for addressing the identified issues.
    METHODS: There are two main methods of assessment for acne severity grading, namely, lesion counting and comparison of patient with a photographic standard. For the computational assessment method, the emphasis is on computational imaging techniques.
    RESULTS: Current acne grading methods are very time consuming and tedious. Generally, they rely on approximation for counting lesions and hence the assessment is quite subjective, with both inter and intra-observer variability. It is important to accurately assess acne grade to evaluate its severity as this influences treatment selection and assessment of response to therapy. This will further help in better disease management and more efficacious treatment.
    CONCLUSION: Semi-automated or automated methods based on computational imaging techniques should be devised for acne grade assessment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Severity of Illness Index*
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