Decacotyle cairae n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of an unidentified species of Pastinachus collected in the South China Sea off Sematan and Mukah, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia. D. cairae can be distinguished from the other six members of the genus by the presence of two simple unsclerotised accessory structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor in combination with a long, narrow, looping male copulatory organ. The host specimens of Pastinachus collected in Borneo also appear to be a new species and the monogenean data support this conclusion. A key to species of Decacotyle is given and their host-specificity is discussed.
A new lecanicephalidean species of Aberrapex Jensen, 2001 is described from the blue-spotted fantail ray Taeniura lymma (Forsskål) collected off the eastern coast of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo. This is the first record of a lecanicephalidean tapeworm from the island of Borneo and the first record of Aberrapex from this host species. A. manjajiae n. sp. is easily distinguished from its two congeners, A. senticosus Jensen, 2001 and A. arrhynchum (Brooks, Mayes & Thorson, 1981) Jensen, 2001, based on its overall smaller size (928-1,971 vs 1,485-6,333 and up to 3,350 microm long, respectively) and fewer testes (10-19 vs 20-40 and 18-25, respectively). In addition, A. manjajiae n. sp. is readily distinguished from A. senticosus based on a more anteriorly positioned genital pore (76-85 vs 52-72% of proglottid length from posterior end) and its distal bothridial microthrix pattern. A. manjajiae n. sp. can be further distinguished from A. arrhynchum based on its smaller scolex (82-101 x 119-164 vs 177-186 x 233-326 microm). The host distribution of Aberrapex is expanded from the Myliobatidae to include the Dasyatidae.
Septesinus gibsoni n. g., n. sp. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) is described from the gills of the dwarf whipray Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) collected in marine waters off Sarawak (Borneo), Malaysia. Septesinus n. g. is distinguished from other genera in the Monocotylidae by a combination of characters, including a haptor with one central and seven peripheral loculi, the presence of a highly sinuous ridge surmounting all haptoral septa, four rounded accessory structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, and the anterior region with two pairs of anteromedian and three pairs of anterolateral gland-duct openings. Septesinus n. g. is accommodated in the Heterocotylinae. Septesinus gibsoni n. sp. is described and fully illustrated, and a key to the genera of Heterocotylinae is provided. The composition of the ridges surrounding the mouth of a number of heterocotyline species and their usefulness as a taxonomic character are examined. The identity of four specimens of Monocotyle Taschenberg, 1878, also recovered from the gills of this host species, is discussed.
Myliocotyle borneoensis sp. n. and M. multicrista sp. n. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) are described from the gills of the mottled eagle ray, Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray), and the banded eagle ray A. nichofii (Bloch et Schneider) (Myliobatidae), respectively, collected from the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo. These are the first monogeneans to be described on elasmobranchs from Borneo. The formerly monotypic Myliocotyle (for M. pteromylaei) was distinguished from other monocotylids by the distribution and morphology of the eight sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and the morphology of the male copulatory organ. However, we have determined that M. pteromylaei has ten structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor. Myliocotyle borneoensis is distinguished from M. pteromylaei by the morphology of the male copulatory organ and its accessory piece. Myliocotyle multicrista has 12 sclerotised dorsal haptoral accessory structures and a male copulatory organ with two accessory pieces. Additional sclerotised ridges across the ventral surfaces of each loculus (except the posterior-most pair) are also present in M. multicrista. The diagnosis for Myliocotyle is revised given our discovery of additional dorsal haptoral accessory structures in the type species and to accommodate other new characters of the two new species. Anterior secretions of Myliocotyle are discussed.
The cestode fauna of the darkspotted numbfish, Narcine maculata (Shaw) (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae), from Malaysian Bomrneo was examined for the first time. This work resulted in the discovery of a new genus and two new species of Anteroporidae (Lecanicephalidea). Sesquipedalapex comicus gen. n., sp. n. was erected on the basis of the peculiarities of its scolex, in particular its possession of an extremely long apical modification of the scolex proper, which readily distinguishes it from the other genus in the family. The genus is also distinct in its possession of acetabula that are in the form of suckers, rather than bothridiate in form. This species was found to deeply embed its elongate apical structure for much of its length within the intestinal mucosa, provoking a papilliform expansion of the outer wall of the spiral intestine at the site of attachment. The second new species, Anteropora klosmamorphis sp. n., is readily distinguished from its congeners on the basis of testis number and bothridial shape. Both new species are hyperapolytic. The diagnosis of Anteroporidae is amended to accommodate both new taxa. This increases the total number of genera in the family to two, and the total number of species to five.
Tetrarhynchobothrium tenuicolle Diesing, 1850 is redescribed from the type-specimens collected from Raja clavata Linnaeus in the Adriatic Sea. T. striatum (Wagener, 1854) is redescribed from voucher specimens from the type host, Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, from the type-locality, off Naples, Italy. The two species are very similar in tentacular armature, but are provisionally maintained as independent species, since the armature of T. tenuicolle cannot be fully described and because all available specimens of T. striatum are immature, limiting comparisons of potential differences in segment anatomy. T. setiense Dollfus, 1969 is treated as a synonym of T. striatum. Zygorhynchus borneensis n. sp. is described from Himantura uarnacoides (Bleeker) and H. pastinacoides (Bleeker) off Sabah, Malaysia. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the very small hooks present in the basal region and by the presence of a uterine pore. The metabasal tentacular armature of Didymorhynchus southwelli Beveridge & Campbell, 1988, described for the first time, is homeoacanthous and homeomorphous in form. However, it has a basal swelling with hook rows originating on the bothrial surface and terminating on the antibothrial surface of the tentacle.
As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.
Empruthotrema stenophallus n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from specimens from the nasal tissue of the blue-spotted maskray Dasyatis kuhlii (Muller and Henle, 1841) collected in shallow waters off Pulau Banggi and Pulau Mabul, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. This is the first monogenean species to be described from an elasmobranch collected from Sabah. E. stenophallus can be distinguished from the other 6 members of the genus by the morphology of the sclerotized male copulatory organ, which is narrow, short, and distally tapered. E. dasyatidis Whittington and Kearn, 1992, previously documented from the nasal tissue of several of elasmobranch species from Australia, is recorded from 8 host species distributed around Malaysian Borneo. These represent new host and locality records for this monocotylid. The difficulties in identifying species of Empruthotrema and the apparent lack of host specificity by some members of the genus are discussed.
The lecanicephalidean cestodes parasitizing the spiral intestine of the endangered giant freshwater whipray, Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker), are investigated for the first time. Eight host specimens were collected between 2002 and 2008 at 2 collecting sites off the eastern coast of Borneo: 6 from the Kinabatangan River (Malaysia) and 2 from a fish market in Tarakan (Indonesia). Two of these individuals were found to be infected with a total of 3 new species of TetragonocephalumShipley and Hornell, 1905. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. were recovered from a host specimen from the Kinabatangan River, and Tetragonocephalum levicorpum n. sp. was found parasitizing a host specimen purchased at a fish market in Tarakan. Specimens of each of the new species were prepared for light microscopy; specimens of 2 of the new species were prepared for scanning electron microscopy, and histological sections were prepared for 1 of the new species. The 3 new species are distinct from the 9 valid species of Tetragonocephalum and the 1 species inquirendum based on, for example, total length, number of proglottids and testes, and size of the scolex and acetabula. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and T. levicorpum n. sp. are unusual among their congeners in that they are euapolytic (i.e., gravid proglottids were not observed) rather than apolytic. They differ from one another in scolex and acetabula size. Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. is unusual among its congeners in its possession of vitelline follicles arranged in 2, rather than 3, regions in the proglottid. These new species increase the total number of valid species of Tetragonocephalum to 12 and the total number of known cestodes from U. polylepis to 13 species across 6 genera in 4 orders. This is the first account of lecanicephalideans reported from freshwater. The taxonomic status of each of the 32 nominal taxa historically associated with Tetragonocephalum is re-assessed. Type host identities of all valid species are revised and discussed in light of recent taxonomic efforts in the Dasyatidae Jordan and Gilbert.