Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Hassali MA, Ahmadi K, Yong GC
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2013 Aug 12;77(6):112.
    PMID: 23966715 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe776112
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  2. Hasan SS, Babar MG, Kai K, Mitha S
    This study examined the validity and reliability of the student version of Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession (JSE-HPS) in a sample of pharmacy students and to subsequently use JSE-HPS to assess empathy levels in first to fourth (final) year pharmacy students in public and private universities in Malaysia. The JSE-HPS was administered to 719 first to fourth (final) year pharmacy students; 313 were enrolled at a public university and 406 at a private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS® version 18. The JSE-HPS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.70). A three-factor solution emerged and included ‘perspective taking’, ‘compassionate care’ and ‘standing in patient’s shoes’ factors, accounting for 16.4%, 16%, and 7.6% of the variance, respectively. The total mean empathy score was 83.02±8.23, the actual score ranged between 46.05 and 113.25. Overall, males and students of Malay origin were more empathic than females and students of other ethnic origins. Junior students (year one and two) were more empathic than senior students (year three and four), and public university students had significantly higher mean empathy score compared to those enrolled at a private university (83.89 versus 82.34, p=0.012). This study confirms the construct validity and internal consistency of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in pharmacy students. Empathy scores among students vary depending on type of university and year of study.
    Keywords: Empathy, pharmacy students, public, private, university, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  3. Davey AK, Grant GD, Anoopkumar-Dukie S
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2013 Sep 12;77(7):148.
    PMID: 24052651 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe777148
    To assess the academic performance and experiences of local, international, and collaborative exchange students enrolled in a 4-year Australian bachelor of pharmacy degree program.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  4. Hassali MA, Kong DC, Stewart K
    Med Educ, 2007 Jul;41(7):703-10.
    PMID: 17614892
    To ascertain any differences in knowledge and perceptions of generic medicines between senior (final year) medical students and pharmacy pre-registrants in Australia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  5. Bhagavathula AS, Bandari DK, Tefera YG, Jamshed SQ, Elnour AA, Shehab A
    Pharmacy (Basel), 2017 Oct 11;5(4).
    PMID: 29019923 DOI: 10.3390/pharmacy5040055
    Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students' research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences (p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities (p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications (p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities.
    Country participated: Asia (Malaysia, India, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) and African (Ethiopia, Kenya and Egypt)
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  6. Ashraf M, Saeed H, Saleem Z, Rathore HA, Rasool F, Tahir E, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 May 03;19(1):95.
    PMID: 31053114 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2503-y
    BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine has always been Pakistan's cultural heritage, providing health care to a large part of its population. Thus, we aimed to assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and perception about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) between pharmacy and non-pharmacy students, the results of which may be helpful in devising national health-education policy.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by enrolling 937 students, pharmacy (437) and non-pharmacy (500), of Punjab University, Lahore. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS. (IBM v22).

    RESULTS: Data suggested that majority of students knew about the use of traditional herbs and considered massage (P: 84.4%, NP: 82%, p = 0.099), homeopathy, herbs (P: 86.5%, NP: 81%, p = 0.064], yoga [P: 357 (81.7%), NP: 84%), p = 0.42] and spiritual healing (P: 85.6%, NP: 86.2%, p = 0.55) as effective and least harmful CAM modalities. The pharmacy students had better knowledge about CAM modalities compared to non-pharmacy students. Despite utilizing non-reliable sources of CAM information and their belief that CAM is practiced by quacks, the majority of students had positive attitudes and perceptions about CAM usage. Students also believed that CAM had a positive impact on health outcomes [P: 3.19 ± 1.04, NP: 3.02 ± 1.09, p = 0.008] and acceded to include CAM in the pharmacy curriculum. However, non-pharmacy students scored higher in their beliefs that CAM usage should be discouraged due to the non-scientific basis of CAM (P: 3.04 ± 0.97, NP: 3.17 ± 1.02, p = 0.028) and a possible threat to public health (P: 3.81 ± 1.74, NP: 4.06 ± 1.56, p = 0.02). On the other hand, pharmacy students believed that patients might get benefits from CAM modalities (P: 4.31 ± 1.48, NP: 4.12 ± 1.45, p = 0.02). Majority of students perceived that spiritual healing is the most useful and safer CAM modality, while acupuncture (P: 25.4%, NP: 21.8%, p = 0.0005), hypnosis (P: 26.8%, NP: 19.6%, p = 0.001) and chiropractic (P: 18.8%, NP: 11.6%, p = 0.0005) were among the harmful ones.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, despite poor knowledge about CAM, students demonstrated positive attitudes and beliefs regarding CAM. They exhibited better awareness about yoga, spiritual healing/prayer, herbs, and massage. Students also showed willingness to advance their knowledge about CAM and favored its inclusion in the curriculum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy/psychology*; Students, Pharmacy/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Loo JSE, Lim SW, Ng YK, Tiong JJL
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2017 Dec;25(6):429-437.
    PMID: 28211115 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12352
    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors influencing the decisions of Malaysian first-year pharmacy undergraduate students in private higher education when choosing to pursue a degree in pharmacy as well as their choice of private university.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study employed a validated, self-administered questionnaire which was administered to 543 first-year pharmacy students from nine different private universities. Factor analysis was utilised to extract key factors from the responses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.

    KEY FINDINGS: Eight factors motivating students' decision to study pharmacy emerged from the responses, accounting for 63.8% of the variance observed. Students were primarily motivated by intrinsic interests, with work conditions and profession attributes also exerting significant influence. In terms of choice of private university, nine factors were identified, accounting for 73.8% of the variance observed. The image of the school and university were most influential factors in this context, followed by university safety, programme attributes and financial factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: First-year pharmacy students in the private higher education sector are motivated by intrinsic interest when choosing to study pharmacy over other courses, while their choice of private university is influenced primarily by the image of the school and university.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy/psychology*; Students, Pharmacy/statistics & numerical data
  8. Jamshed SQ, Ibrahim MI, Hassali MA, Sharrad AK, Shafie AA, Babar ZU
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2015;6:359-66.
    PMID: 26028981 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S27762
    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students in Karachi, Pakistan.

    METHODS: A 23-item survey instrument that included a question on the bioequivalence limits and Likert-type scale questions regarding the understanding and perceptions of generic medicines among the students was executed. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.62.

    RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 236 final-year Doctor of Pharmacy students (n=85 from a publicly funded institute; n=151 from a privately funded institute). When comparing a brand-name medicine to a generic medicine, pharmacy students scored poorly on bioequivalence limits. More than 80% of the students incorrectly answered that all the products that are rated as generic equivalents are therapeutically equivalent to each other (P<0.04). Half of the students agreed that a generic medicine is bioequivalent to the brand-name medicine (P<0.001). With regard to quality, effectiveness, and safety, more than 75% of the students disagreed that generic medicines are of inferior quality and are less effective than brand-name medicines (P<0.001). More than 50% of the students disagreed that generic medicines produce more side effects than brand-name medicines (P<0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The current study identified a positive perception toward generic medicines but also gaps in the understanding of generic medicines. Pharmacy students lacked a thorough understanding of the concepts of bioequivalence. Pharmacy academia should address these issues, which will help build confidence in generic medicines and increase the generic medicine use in Pakistan.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  9. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Moorthy J, Jamshed SQ, Patel I
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2015 Jan-Mar;13(1):523.
    PMID: 25883690
    BACKGROUND: There is limited research on pharmacy specialization based differences with regards to usage of antibiotics.
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Southern India.
    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study involving final year BPharm and PharmD students studying in two private institutions located in Andra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for the period of 3 months. The questionnaire was divided into 5 components: demographics, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage, and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. The study questionnaire was assessed for reliability. Data were analysed by employing Mann Whitney and chi square tests using SPSS version 19.
    RESULTS: The sample size comprised of 137 students. The response rate was 76.11% for the study. There was a significant difference in the knowledge of antibiotic use in BPharm and PharmD students (Mean score: 5.09 vs 6.18, p<0.001). The overall attitude of PharmD students about antibiotic use and resistance was positive compared to BPharm students (Mean score: 3.05 vs 2.23, p<0.05). The self-antibiotic practices was higher in BPharm students than PharmD students (36.4% vs 20%, p<0.05). A significantly high number of PharmD students believed that empirical antibiotic therapy led to antibiotic resistance (19.5% versus 48%, P<0.05).
    CONCLUSION: PharmD students were more knowledgeable about antibiotic usage and resistance compared to BPharm students who did not have accurate and the much needed information about the same. Future interventions should be targeted towards educating the BPharm students so that they can implement the acquired knowledge in their practice.
    KEYWORDS: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Attitudes; Bacterial; Drug Resistance; Health Knowledge; India; Pharmacy; Practice; Students
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  10. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Patel I, Maharaj S, Pandey S, Dhingra S
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2015 Jan-Mar;4(1):37-41.
    PMID: 25710049 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.150057
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20.
    FINDINGS: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.
    KEYWORDS: Antibiotics; Trinidad and Tobago; knowledge; pharmacy students; resistance
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  11. Tan CE, Jaffar A, Tong SF, Hamzah MS, Mohamad N
    Med Educ Online, 2014 Jan;19(1):25605.
    PMID: 28440130 DOI: 10.3402/meo.v19.25605
    Introduction The Comprehensive Healthcare (CHC) module was developed to introduce pre-clinical medical and pharmacy students to the concept of comprehensive healthcare. This study aims to explore their shared learning experiences within this module. Methodology During this module, medical and pharmacy students conducted visits to patients' homes and to related community-based organisations in small groups. They were required to write a reflective journal on their experiences regarding working with other professions as part of their module assessment. Highly scored reflective journals written by students from the 2011/2012 academic session were selected for analysis. Their shared learning experiences were identified via thematic analysis. We also analysed students' feedback regarding the module. Results Analysis of 25 selected reflective journals revealed several important themes: 'Understanding of impact of illness and its relation to holistic care', 'Awareness of the role of various healthcare professions' and 'Generic or soft skills for inter-professional collaboration'. Although the primary objective of the module was to expose students to comprehensive healthcare, the students learnt skills required for future collaborative practice from their experiences. Discussion The CHC module provided early clinical exposure to community-based health issues and incorporated some elements of inter-professional education. The students learnt about the roles of other healthcare professions and acquired soft skills required for future collaborative practice during this module.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  12. Zakaria SF, Awaisu A
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2011 May 10;75(4):75.
    PMID: 21769151
    OBJECTIVE: To implement a shared learning approach through fourth-year students' mentorship of third-year students and to assess the perceptions of the mentored students on the value of their shared learning experience.

    DESIGN: We introduced the shared learning experience in clinical pharmacy and pharmacotherapeutic practice experiences involving 87 third-year and 51 fourth-year students. Both student groups undertook the practice experiences together, with third-year students working in smaller groups mentored by fourth-year students.

    ASSESSMENT: A majority of the students (> 75%) believed that they learned to work as a team during their practice experiences and that the shared learning approach provided an opportunity to practice their communication skills. Similarly, most respondents (> 70%) agreed that the new approach would help them become effective members of the healthcare team and would facilitate their professional relationships in future practice. Almost two-thirds of the students believed that the shared learning enhanced their ability to understand clinical problems. However, about 31% of the pharmacy students felt that they could have learned clinical problem-solving skills equally well working only with peers from their own student group.

    CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacy students in the current study generally believed that the shared-learning approach enhanced their ability to understand clinical problems and improved their communication and teamwork skills. Both groups of students were positive that they had acquired some skills through the shared-learning approach.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  13. Chua SS, Lai PSM, Sim SM, Tan CH, Foong CC
    BMC Med Educ, 2019 Apr 05;19(1):101.
    PMID: 30953493 DOI: 10.1186/s12909-019-1525-y
    BACKGROUND: The success of interprofessional collaboration in healthcare services requires a paradigm shift in the training of future health profession practitioners. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure Student Acceptance of Interprofessional Learning (SAIL) in Malaysia, and to assess this attribute among medical and pharmacy students using a prescribing skills training workshop.

    METHODS: The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, a 10-item instrument (SAIL-10) was developed and tested on a cohort of medical and pharmacy students who attended the workshop. In Phase 2, different cohorts of medical and pharmacy students completed SAIL-10 before and after participating in the workshop.

    RESULTS: Factor analysis showed that SAIL-10 has two domains: "facilitators of interprofessional learning" and "acceptance to learning in groups". The overall SAIL-10 and the two domains have adequate internal consistency and stable reliability. The total score and scores for the two domains were significantly higher after students attended the prescribing skills workshop.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study produced a valid and reliable instrument, SAIL-10 which was used to demonstrate that the prescribing skills workshop, where medical and pharmacy students were placed in an authentic context, was a promising activity to promote interprofessional learning among future healthcare professionals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  14. De Matteis CI, Randall MD, Harvey EJ, Morris A, Winkler GS, Boardman HF
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2019 Feb;83(1):6508.
    PMID: 30894766 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe6508
    Objective. To design an integrated dyspepsia module for first year pharmacy students that combines clinical and professional practice with fundamental sciences in five different science subject areas. Methods. The approaches used in designing this module are described with emphasis on strategies adopted to integrate science and practice, and the new ways of working adopted by the design team. Students' views and experiences of the module and its integration were explored using questionnaires. Results. A high proportion of students reported positive views and experiences of the module, the integration and its impact (as self-reported) on their learning and practice. The assessment of student performance indicated learning and attainment was at an appropriate level for a first-year module. Both the student grades and research results indicate a positive student learning experience. Conclusion. The dyspepsia module provides a flexible and effective template for the integration of science and practice in theme-based modules, with students reporting positively about the integration, including their perception of its contribution to improving their learning and understanding. New and more collaborative ways of working are required when designing integrated modules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy
  15. Simansalam S, Brewster JM, Nik Mohamed MH
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2015 Jun 25;79(5):71.
    PMID: 26246620 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe79571
    To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  16. Rajiah K, Ren WS, Jamshed SQ
    J Infect Public Health, 2015 May-Jun;8(3):266-73.
    PMID: 25530352 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2014.11.003
    Infectious diseases are a great threat to humankind, and antibiotics are a viable proposition to numerous pathologies. However, antibiotic resistance is a global concern. Therefore, the aims of this survey were to explore the understanding and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic use and resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  17. Awaisu A, Mohamed MH, Al-Efan QA
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2007 Dec 15;71(6):118.
    PMID: 19503702
    OBJECTIVES: To assess bachelor of pharmacy students' overall perception and acceptance of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a new method of clinical competence assessment in pharmacy undergraduate curriculum at our Faculty, and to explore its strengths and weaknesses through feedback.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted via a validated 49-item questionnaire, administered immediately after all students completed the examination. The questionnaire comprised of questions to evaluate the content and structure of the examination, perception of OSCE validity and reliability, and rating of OSCE in relation to other assessment methods. Open-ended follow-up questions were included to generate qualitative data.

    RESULTS: Over 80% of the students found the OSCE to be helpful in highlighting areas of weaknesses in their clinical competencies. Seventy-eight percent agreed that it was comprehensive and 66% believed it was fair. About 46% felt that the 15 minutes allocated per station was inadequate. Most importantly, about half of the students raised concerns that personality, ethnicity, and/or gender, as well as interpatient and inter-assessor variability were potential sources of bias that could affect their scores. However, an overwhelming proportion of the students (90%) agreed that the OSCE provided a useful and practical learning experience.

    CONCLUSIONS: Students' perceptions and acceptance of the new method of assessment were positive. The survey further highlighted for future refinement the strengths and weaknesses associated with the development and implementation of an OSCE in the International Islamic University Malaysia's pharmacy curriculum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy/psychology*
  18. Elkalmi RM, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI, Widodo RT, Efan QM, Hadi MA
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2011 Jun 10;75(5):96.
    PMID: 21829270 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe75596
    To assess senior pharmacy students' knowledge of and perceptions about pharmacovigilance and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) at 5 public universities in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy*
  19. Hasan SS, Yong CS, Babar MG, Naing CM, Hameed A, Baig MR, et al.
    PMID: 21992582 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-95
    BACKGROUND: In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18.
    RESULTS: Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM) are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6) and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7). More than half (57.8%) of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9%) was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (21%). Most of the students (74.8%) believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8%) and music therapy (53.8%) to be effective. Majority of them (69.3%) asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy/psychology*
  20. Saleem F, Hassali MA, Ibrahim ZS, Rasheedy AA, Aljadhey H
    J Community Health, 2015 Apr;40(2):285-90.
    PMID: 25115271 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-014-9930-y
    The present study aims to explore the perceptions and understanding of future pharmacists towards volunteerism in health promotional activities. The study was designed as a cross sectional, descriptive survey. All pharmacy undergraduates (n = 293) from the first, second and third professional years enrolled at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia were targeted for the study. A pre validated, 15-itemed questionnaire was used for data collection and was analysed by using SPSS. Dichotomous groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to evaluate the trend of association. Where significant associations were reported, effect size was calculated by using Kendall tau correlation coefficient. p value of <0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance. Out of 200 respondents, 185 completed the study with a response rate of 92.5 %. Agreement with mandatory status of volunteerism at community services was significant with gender (p = 0.003) and year of study (p = 0.045). Confidence in performing health promotional activities (p = 0.001, τ = 0.155) and needed communication skills during health promotional activities (p = 0.022, τ = 0.322) were also significantly associated with year of study with a moderate positive trend from junior to senior classes. Although pharmacy undergraduates showed positive interest and will to volunteer at the health promotional programs, certain issues were also highlighted. Therefore, in order to address these challenges, pharmacy curriculum needs to include a greater emphasis on role of pharmacists in public health. This can be achieved by having a dedicated core course as part of pharmacy curriculum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Students, Pharmacy/psychology*
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links