Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Dezfouli MG, Eissazadeh S, Zade SM
    Microsc Microanal, 2014 Aug;20(4):1167-79.
    PMID: 24735566 DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614000701
    This study examines histometrical changes induced by sodium arsenite (SA), as an environmental pollutant, and investigates the protective effect of α-tocopherol on ovaries of SA-treated rats during the prenatal stage until sexual maturity. Rats were classified into groups: control, SA (8 ppm/day), α-tocopherol (100 ppm/day), and SA+α-tocopherol. Treatment was performed from pregnancy until maturation when the rats and ovaries were weighed. The Cavalieri method was used to estimate volume of the ovaries, cortex, medulla, and corpus luteum. The mean diameter of oocytes, granulosa cells, and nuclei were measured and volume was estimated using the Nucleator method. The number of oocytes and thickness of the zona pellucida (ZP) were determined using an optical dissector and orthogonal intercept method, respectively. SA reduced the body and ovary weight, the number of secondary, antral and Graafian oocytes, volume of the ovaries, cortex, medulla and corpus luteum, mean diameter and volume of oocytes in primordial and primary follicles, mean diameter and volume of oocyte nuclei in all types of follicles, and mean thickness of the ZP in secondary and antral follicles. Also, the mean diameter and volume of granulosa cells and their nuclei in antral and Graafian follicles decreased significantly. Vacuolization and vascular congestion in the corpus luteum and an increase in the number of atretic oocytes were seen in the SA group. Most of these parameters were unchanged from the control level in the SA+α-tocopherol group. It was concluded that α-tocopherol supplementation reduced the toxic effects of SA exposure on ovarian tissue in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  2. Makpol S, Jam FA, Khor SC, Ismail Z, Mohd Yusof YA, Ngah WZ
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2013;2013:298574.
    PMID: 24396567 DOI: 10.1155/2013/298574
    Biodynes, tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), and tocopherol have shown antiaging properties. However, the combined effects of these compounds on skin aging are yet to be investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the skin aging effects of biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol on stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) by determining the expression of collagen and MMPs at gene and protein levels. Primary HDFs were treated with biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. The expression of COL1A1, COL3A1, MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, and MMP9 genes was determined by qRT-PCR. Type I and type III procollagen proteins were measured by Western blotting while the activities of MMPs were quantified by fluorometric Sensolyte MMP Kit. Our results showed that biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol upregulated collagen genes and downregulated MMP genes (P < 0.05). Type I procollagen and type III procollagen protein levels were significantly increased in response to biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol treatment (P < 0.05) with reduction in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 activities (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that biodynes, TRF, and tocopherol effectively enhanced collagen synthesis and inhibited collagen degradation and therefore may protect the skin from aging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  3. Hermizi H, Faizah O, Ima-Nirwana S, Ahmad Nazrun S, Norazlina M
    Calcif. Tissue Int., 2009 Jan;84(1):65-74.
    PMID: 19020790 DOI: 10.1007/s00223-008-9190-x
    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three forms of vitamin E supplements following nicotine treatment on bone histomorphometric parameters in an adult male rat model. Rats were divided into seven groups: baseline (B, killed without treatment), control (C, normal saline for 4 months), nicotine (N, nicotine for 2 months), nicotine cessation (NC), tocotrienol-enhanced fraction (TEF), gamma-tocotrienol (GTT), and alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatments for the NC, TEF, GTT, and ATF groups were performed in two phases. For the first 2 months they were given nicotine (7 mg/kg), and for the following 2 months nicotine administration was stopped and treatments with respective vitamin E preparations (60 mg/kg) were commenced except for the NC group, which was allowed to recover without treatment. Rats in the N and NC groups had lower trabecular bone volume, mineral appositional rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) and higher single labeled surface and osteoclast surface compared to the C group. Vitamin E treatment reversed these nicotine effects. Both the TEF and GTT groups, but not the ATF group, had a significantly higher trabecular thickness but lower eroded surface (ES/BS) than the C group. The tocotrienol-treated groups had lower ES/BS than the ATF group. The GTT group showed a significantly higher MAR and BFR/BS than the TEF and ATF groups. In conclusion, nicotine induced significant bone loss, while vitamin E supplements not only reversed the effects but also stimulated bone formation significantly above baseline values. Tocotrienol was shown to be slightly superior compared to tocopherol. Thus, vitamin E, especially GTT, may have therapeutic potential to repair bone damage caused by chronic smoking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  4. Wong JY, Matanjun P, Ooi YB, Chia KF
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2013 Aug;64(5):621-31.
    PMID: 23368987 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2013.763910
    This study was carried out to characterize phenolic compounds, carotenoids, vitamins and the antioxidant activity of selected wild edible plants. Plant extracts were purified, and phenolic compounds comprising 11 phenolic acids (hydroxybenzoic acid and hydrocinnamic acid) and 33 flavonoids (including catechin, glycosides and aglycones) were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography - Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD). Furthermore, the contents of ascorbic acid and tocopherol ((α and γ tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) were also determined. The major phenolics identified consisted of glycosides of flavones (apigenin and luteolin) and flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin). Among the phenolic acids identified after hydrolysis, coumaric acid was the predominant phenolic acid in all the extracts of wild plants. Ascorbic acid [53.8 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW)] and β-carotene (656.5 mg/100 g FW) showed the highest content in the leaf of Heckeria umbellatum. In conclusion, the leaves of H. umbellatum, Aniseia martinicensis and Gonostegia hirta have excellent potential in the future to emerge as functional ingredients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology
  5. Azlina MF, Nafeeza MI, Khalid BA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):358-65.
    PMID: 16326642
    Rats exposed to stress developed various changes in the gastrointestinal tract and hormones. The present study was designed to compare the impact of tocopherol and tocotrienol on changes that influence gastric and hormonal parameters important in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity in rats exposed to restrain stress. These include gastric acidity, gastric tissue content of parameters such as malondialdehyde, prostaglandin (PGE(2)), serum levels of gastrin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three equal sized groups, a control group which received a normal rat diet (RC) and two treatment groups each receiving a vitamin deficient diet with oral supplementation of either tocopherol (TF) or tocotrienol (TT) at 60 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken from half the number of rats (non-stressed group) after a treatment period of 28 days before they were killed. The remaining half was subjected to experimental restraint-stress, at 2 hours daily for 4 consecutive days (stressed groups), on the fourth day, blood samples were taken and the rats killed. The findings showed that the gastric acid concentration and serum gastrin level in stressed rats were significantly (P<0.05) reduced compared to the non-stressed rats in the control and TF groups. However, the gastric acidity and gastrin levels in the TT group were comparable in stressed and non-stressed rats. These findings suggest that tocotrienol is able to preserve the gastric acidity and serum gastrin level which are usually altered in stressed conditions. The PGE(2) content and the plasma GLP-1 level were, however, comparable in all stressed and non-stressed groups indicating that these parameters were not altered in stress and that supplementation with TF or TT had no effect on the gastric PGE2 content or the GLP-1 level. The malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation was higher from gastric tissues in the stressed groups compared to the non-stressed groups. These findings implicated that free radicals may play a role in the development of gastric injury in stress and supplementation with either TF or TT was able to reduce the lipid peroxidation levels compared to the control rats. We conclude that both tocopherol and tocotrienol are comparable in their gastro-protective ability against damage by free radicals generated in stress conditions, but only tocotrienol has the ability to block the stress-induced changes in the gastric acidity and gastrin level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  6. Ima-Nirwana S, Suhaniza S
    J Med Food, 2004;7(1):45-51.
    PMID: 15117552
    Long-term glucocorticoid treatment is associated with severe side effects, such as obesity and osteoporosis. A palm oil-derived vitamin E mixture had been shown previously to be protective against osteoporosis in rats given 120 microg/kg dexamethasone daily for 12 weeks. In this study we determined the effects of two isomers of vitamin E (i.e., palm oil-derived gamma-tocotrienol and the commercially available alpha-tocopherol, 60 mg/kg of body weight/day) on body composition and bone calcium content in adrenalectomized rats replaced with two doses of dexamethasone, 120 microg/kg and 240 microg/kg daily. Treatment period was 8 weeks. gamma-Tocotrienol (60 mg/kg of body weight/day) was found to reduce body fat mass and increase the fourth lumbar vertebra bone calcium content in these rats, while alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg of body weight/day) was ineffective. Therefore, in conclusion, palm oil-derived gamma-tocotrienol has the potential to be utilized as a prophylactic agent in prevention of the side effects of long-term glucocorticoid use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  7. Pahrudin Arrozi A, Shukri SNS, Wan Ngah WZ, Mohd Yusof YA, Ahmad Damanhuri MH, Jaafar F, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 06 02;10(1):8962.
    PMID: 32488024 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65570-4
    Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alpha-tocopherol (ATF) is the most widely studied form of vitamin E besides gamma-tocopherol (GTF) which also shows beneficial effects in AD. The levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the brains of AD patients, and mutations in the APP gene are known to enhance the production of Aβ. Mitochondrial function was shown to be affected by the increased level of Aβ and may induce cell death. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of ATF and GTF on their ability to reduce Aβ level, modulate mitochondrial function and reduce the apoptosis marker in SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with the wild-type or mutant form of the APP gene. The Aβ level was measured by ELISA, the mitochondrial ROS and ATP level were quantified by fluorescence and luciferase assay respectively whereas the complex V enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry. The expressions of genes involved in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability such as voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC1), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and cyclophilin D (CYPD) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), while the expressions of cyclophilin D (CypD), cytochrome c, Bcl2 associated X (BAX), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), and pro-caspase-3 were determined by western blot. Our results showed that mitochondrial ROS level was elevated accompanied by decreased ATP level and complex V enzyme activity in SH-SY5Y cells expressing the mutant APP gene (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology
  8. Khor SC, Razak AM, Wan Ngah WZ, Mohd Yusof YA, Abdul Karim N, Makpol S
    PLoS One, 2016;11(2):e0149265.
    PMID: 26885980 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149265
    Aging results in a loss of muscle mass and strength. Myoblasts play an important role in maintaining muscle mass through regenerative processes, which are impaired during aging. Vitamin E potentially ameliorates age-related phenotypes. Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and α-tocopherol (ATF) in protecting myoblasts from replicative senescence and promoting myogenic differentiation. Primary human myoblasts were cultured into young and senescent stages and were then treated with TRF or ATF for 24 h, followed by an analysis of cell proliferation, senescence biomarkers, cellular morphology and differentiation. Our data showed that replicative senescence impaired the normal regenerative processes of myoblasts, resulting in changes in cellular morphology, cell proliferation, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) expression, myogenic differentiation and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) expression. Treatment with both TRF and ATF was beneficial to senescent myoblasts in reclaiming the morphology of young cells, improved cell viability and decreased SA-β-gal expression. However, only TRF treatment increased BrdU incorporation in senescent myoblasts, as well as promoted myogenic differentiation through the modulation of MRFs at the mRNA and protein levels. MYOD1 and MYOG gene expression and myogenin protein expression were modulated in the early phases of myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, the tocotrienol-rich fraction is superior to α-tocopherol in ameliorating replicative senescence-related aberration and promoting differentiation via modulation of MRFs expression, indicating vitamin E potential in modulating replicative senescence of myoblasts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology*
  9. Nafeeza MI, Fauzee AM, Kamsiah J, Gapor MT
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2002;11(4):309-13.
    PMID: 12495264
    This study examined the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) obtained from palm oil on the healing of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into three groups. Group I was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet (control), Group II was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with tocopherol (300 mg/kg food) and Group III was fed a vitamin E-deficient diet supplemented with TRF (300 mg/kg food). After eight weeks, the control and treated groups received a single intragastric dose of 400 mg/kg body weight aspirin. The rats were killed 24 h after exposure to aspirin. Assessment of gastric lesions showed a lower gastric lesion index in the TRF (P = 0.0005) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.0008) compared to the control. The gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) content was also lower in the TRF (P = 0.025) and tocopherol groups (P = 0.025) compared to control. There were, however, no significant differences in the gastric lesion index and gastric MDA content between the TRF and tocopherol-fed groups. There were no significant differences in the adherent gastric mucous concentration and gastric acid concentration among all groups. We conclude that the TRF and tocopherol are equally effective in preventing aspirin-induced gastric lesions. The most probable mechanism is through their ability to limit lipid peroxidation, which is involved in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology
  10. Hani H, Allaudin ZN, Mohd-Lila MA, Sarsaifi K, Rasouli M, Tam YJ, et al.
    Xenotransplantation, 2017 05;24(3).
    PMID: 28397308 DOI: 10.1111/xen.12302
    BACKGROUND: Dead islets replaced with viable islets are a promising offer to restore normal insulin production to a person with diabetes. The main reason for establishing a new islet source for transplantation is the insufficiency of human donor pancreas while using xenogeneic islets perhaps assists this problem. The expression of PDX1 is essential for the pancreas expansion. In mature β-cells, PDX1 has several critical roles such as glucose sensing, insulin synthesis, and insulin secretion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) in treated caprine islets in culture and to assess the protective effects of antioxidant factors on the PDX1 gene in cultured caprine islets.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Purified islets were treated with serum-free, serum, IBMX, tocopherol, or IBMX and tocopherol media. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were carried out to compare the expression levels of PDX1 in treated purified islets cultured with different media.

    RESULTS: Islets treated with IBMX/tocopherol exhibited the highest fold change in the relative expression of PDX1 on day 5 post-treatment (relative expression: 6.80±2.08), whereas serum-treated islets showed the lowest fold changes in PDX1 expression on day 5 post-treatment (0.67±0.36), as compared with the expression on day 1 post-treatment. Insulin production and viability tests of purified islets showed superiority of islet at supplemented serum-free media with IBMX/tocopherol compared to other cultures (53.875%±1.59%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that supplemented serum-free medium with tocopherol and IBMX enhances viability and PDX1 gene expression compared to serum-added and serum-free media.

    Matched MeSH terms: Tocopherols/pharmacology
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