Sundatrema langkawiense n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) is described from the gills of the orbfish Ephippus orbis (Bloch) (Ephippidae) off the Island of Langkawi, Malaysia, in the Andaman Sea. This new genus has the ancyrocephalid characteristics of four anchors, 14 marginal hooks and two bars, but differs from other four-anchored monogenean genera, and notably from Parancylodiscoides Caballero & Bravo Hollis, 1961 (found on the ephippids Chaetodipterus spp. off Central and South America), by having a unique combination of features. These include a muscular genital sucker and a vas deferens and vagina on the same (sinistral) side of the body. It is similar to Parancylodiscoides in having four haptoral reservoirs opening at the anchoral apertures, four anchors, similar connecting bars and small marginal hooks. The new species is characterised by the above generic features and by possessing a small, short copulatory organ lacking an accessory piece. Diplectanum longiphallus MacCallum, 1915 (previously attributed to Ancyrocephalus Creplin, 1839, Tetrancistrum Goto & Kikuchi, 1917 and Pseudohaliotrema Yamaguti, 1953) is transferred to Parancylodiscoides as P. longiphallus (MacCallum, 1915) n. comb.
A new digenean, Allassogonoporus callosciuri n. sp. from the plantain squirrel Callosciurus notatus from the Malaysian state of Sarawak, Borneo, is described. The new species differs from: A. amphoraeformis by the size of the ventral sucker and the position of the vitellarium and uterus; and from A. marginalis by the smaller oral sucker, the position of the testes and vitellarium; from A. vespertilionis by the position of the vitellarium, testes and ovary; from A. asymmetrica by the position of the testes and uterus. Gilford's (1955) and Dubois' (1963) opinions on the synonymy of Allassogonoporus and Myotitrema is supported. No representatives of the family Allassogonoporidae have been reported previously from sciurids or South-East Asia.
Stunkardia minuta sp. n. was recovered from the small intestine and rectum of 5 box-tortoises (Cuora amboinensis) in Malaysia. The average body size (L X W) is 11-42 X 2-35 mm; oral sucker 1-51 X 1.02; oral pouches 0-21 X 0.18; ventral sucker 1-67 X 1-43; oesophageal bulb 0-54 X 0-54; ant. testis 0-95 X 0-98; post. testis 0-94 X 0.94; seminal vesicle 0-82 X 0-24; ootype 0-21 X 0-41; ovary 0-41 X 0-34; and egg 121 X 83 micrometer. Although morphologically similar to S. dilymphosa, S. minuta is distinct from any other reported member of the Paramphistomidae.
Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani sp. n. is described from Rattus muelleri in Kepong, Selangor, Malaysia. It is characterised by having symmetrical dumbell-shaped testes, and vitellaria as a single ventral band in the hindbody. The taxonomic relations of Neodiplostomum, Conodiplostomum and Fibricola are discussed and possible significance of the fluke as an ecological indicator noted.
Mesocoelium malayanum sp. n. is described from the frog Rana macrodon, in Malaysia. Elongate body, broader anteriorly, measuring 1.900 (1.679-2.070) mm long by 0.404 (0.380-0.437) wide, tegument aspinose oral sucker 0.212 (0.200-0.228) by 0.202 (9.191-0.205), acetabulum 0.141 (0.132-0.150) by 0.139 (0.123-0.146), prepharynx present, oesophagus 0.115 (0.096-0.137), caeca reaching posterior 1/3 of body, anterior testis 0.097 (0.087-0.110) by 0.091 (0.087-0.100) dorsal to acetabulum, posterior testis 0.094 (0.087-0.101) by 0.092 (0.091-0.100), cirrus pouch 0.121 (0.111-0.130) by 0.047 (0.041-0.055), genital pore at left of midline of oesophagus just anterior to intestinal bifurcation, ovary 0.110 (0.091-0.127) by 0.089 (0.085-0.096) on left of body and posterior to acetabulum, vitelline glands with single follicles extending from intestinal bifurcation to ends of caeca, excretory vesicle I-shaped and eggs 0.040 (0.037-0.046) by 0.023 (0.022-0.024). Although morphologically related to M. maroccanum and M. meggitti, M. malayanum is considered to be a new species.
One new and three previously described species of Trianchoratus Price et Berry, 1966 were collected from the gills of Channa lucius (Cuvier) and Channa striata (Bloch) from the Bukit Merah Reservoir, Perak and Endau-Rompin, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. They are Trianchoratus longianchoratus sp.n., T. malayensis Lim, 1986 and T. pahangensis Lim, 1986 from C. lucius, and T. ophicephali Lim, 1986 from C. striata. The new species differs from the Trianchoratus species hitherto described from channids and anabantoids in having two ventral anchors with a long curved inner root and one dorsal anchor with a curved inner root and lacking an outer root. A table summarizing the known species of heteronchocleidins (Trianchoratus, Eutrianchoratus and Heteronchocleidus) and Sundanonchus reported from fish hosts of different families (Channidae, Helostomatidae, Anabantidae and Osphronemidae) is provided.
Sixteen labrid species, including four Bodianus spp., were examined in New Caledonia (South Pacific) and monogeneans were found only on Bodianus perditio (Quoy et Gaimard). This species, Haliotrema banana sp. n., is the second Haliotrema species to be described from the labrids, the first being Haliotrema bodiani Yamaguti, 1968 from Bodianus albotaeniatus (Valenciennes), previously designated as B. bilunulatus (Lacépède). The new species is similar to H. bodiani in soft reproductive parts but differs from it in the morphologies of the hard haptoral parts, mainly in the shape of the dorsal bar (bar-shaped vs V-shaped in H. bodiani) and ventral bar. It is similar to Haliotrema spirale Yamaguti, 1968 and Haliotrema minutospirale Yamaguti, 1968 in the shape of the anchors and bars but differs from them in the detailed structures of the copulatory organ and vaginal system.
Septesinus gibsoni n. g., n. sp. (Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) is described from the gills of the dwarf whipray Himantura walga (Müller & Henle) collected in marine waters off Sarawak (Borneo), Malaysia. Septesinus n. g. is distinguished from other genera in the Monocotylidae by a combination of characters, including a haptor with one central and seven peripheral loculi, the presence of a highly sinuous ridge surmounting all haptoral septa, four rounded accessory structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, and the anterior region with two pairs of anteromedian and three pairs of anterolateral gland-duct openings. Septesinus n. g. is accommodated in the Heterocotylinae. Septesinus gibsoni n. sp. is described and fully illustrated, and a key to the genera of Heterocotylinae is provided. The composition of the ridges surrounding the mouth of a number of heterocotyline species and their usefulness as a taxonomic character are examined. The identity of four specimens of Monocotyle Taschenberg, 1878, also recovered from the gills of this host species, is discussed.
This is a catalogue and discussion of the known dactylogyridean monogenean genera of siluriform fishes of the Old World. Of a total of 38 nominal genera, only 19 are considered valid. Seventeen of these 19 genera are currently in the Ancyrocephalidae (containing the Ancyrocephalinae and Ancylodiscoidinae), whilst the other two (Neocalceostoma and Neocalceostomoides) are in the Neocalceostomatidae. The 17 genera are Anchylodiscus, Ancylodiscoides, Bagrobdella, Bifurcohaptor, Bychowskyella, Chauhanellus, Cornudiscoides, Hamatopeduncularia, Mizelleus, Paraquadriacanthus, Pseudancylodiscoides, Protoancylodiscoides, Quadriacanthus, Schilbetrema, Schilbetrematoides, Synodontella and Thaparocleidus. Clariotrema Long, 1981 and Neobychowskyella Ma, Wang & Li, 1983 are considered synonyms of Bychowskyella Akhmerov, 1952, Anacornuatus Dubey, Gupta & Agarwal, 1992 is considered a synonym of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961, Mizellebychowskia Gupta & Sachdeva, 1990 is considered a synonym of Neocalceostoma Tripathi, 1959 and Hargitrema Tripathi, 1959 is treated as a synonym of Hamatopeduncularia Yamaguti, 1953. It is proposed that the Ancylodiscoidinae be raised to family status within the order Dactylogyridea to accommodate these 17 'ancyrocephalid' genera from siluriforms, together with Malayanodiscoides and Notopterodiscoides from notopterids. A key and the diagnostic characteristics of the 19 recognised dactylogyridean genera from catfishes plus two from notopterids, together with a list of species and synonyms, are included. New combinations made in this work are Thaparocleidus avicularia (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. calyciflorus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. choanovagina (Luo & Lang, 1981) n. comb., T. dissimilis (Chen, 1988) n. comb., T. leiocassis (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1959) n. comb., T. meticulosa (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. parasoti (Zhao & Ma, 1999) n. comb., T. persculpus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. valga (Chen, 1987) n. comb. and T. wulingensis (Yao & Wang, 1997) n. comb. [all from Silurodiscoides] and Bychowskyella glyptothoraci (Ma, Wang & Li, 1983) n. comb. [from Neobychowskyella].
The diversity of monogeneans from Southeast Asia was examined using information from the literature to show their diversity at different taxonomic (subclass, family, genera, species) levels. Knowledge of monogeneans is still incomplete in Southeast Asia and the present numbers of monogeneans are likely an underestimate of what is present on/in aquatic organisms in the region, since so few hosts have been examined. An estimate of the possible numbers of monogeneans that could be present on/in fishes and turtles in Peninsular Malaysia indicates that only 8% of the monogeneans are presently known. Analysis of the available data on monogenean diversity (or species richness) at different taxonomic levels will provide useful information on their distribution patterns. There is an uneven distribution of investigations on this topic and Malayan fauna is considered to be representative of the Southeast Asian fauna. Southeast Asian (Sundaland) monogeneans are related (at the generic level) to the monogenean fauna of South China, India and Africa.
A new sanguinicolid blood fluke, Parasanguinicola vastispina, is described from sea bass Lates calcarifer cultured in Malaysia. It is distinguished by its massive armature and widely spaced genital pores, the female pore being pre-ovarian. P. vastispina inhabits the branchial arteries, dorsal aorta, mesenteric venules and renal artery of its host. No pathological effect was observed in infected fish.
Twenty-three species of intestinal flukes reported in man in Southeast Asia are assigned to seven families: Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodriidae, Microphallidae, Paramphistomatidae and Plagiorchiidae. The majority of species belongs to the Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae families. Common species are Fasciolopsis buski, Echinostoma ilocanum, E. malayanum, E. revolutum and Haplorchis yokogawai. The countries where large number of species were reported are Thailand (14 species), Philippines (12 species), Indonesia (8 species) and Malaysia (4 species). Only one species was recognized in Laos, and Vietnam. Several species reported in man in the other regions, were reported in animals in Southeast Asia. It is possible that these are present in humans but have not yet been reported.
Thirteen bats, Tadarida mops de Blainville, collected from the Ampang district in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were found positive for the trematodes Castroia kamariae sp. nov. and Limatulum kuziai sp. nov. Two distinct but morphologically similar forms of Castroia kamariae were recovered. The morphological type is apparently determined by its location in the host intestine.
Neodiplostomum (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani Betterton, 1976 has been reported from four species of rodent hosts: Echinosorex gymnurus (Raffles): Rattus whiteheadi (Thos); R. muelleri (Jentink) and Callosciurus notatus (Boddaert). A comparison of trematodes recovered from these hosts revealed patterns of host-induced morphological variation taking place. Because N. (Conodiplostomum) ramachandrani shows little generic difference from Fibricola intermedius (Pearson, 1959) Sudarikov, 1960 it is transferred to the genus Fibricola and is now designated Fibricola ramachandrani (Betterton, 1976) Palmieri, Krishnasamy and Sullivan.
Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. and Ligophorus kederai n. sp. are described from Liza subviridis Valenciennes, 1836 and Valamugil buchanani Bleeker, 1854, respectively. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. has fenestrated ventral anchors, while in L. belanaki n. sp. the ventral anchor is not fenestrated. Ligophorus belanaki n. sp. is similar to L. careyensis, one of its coexisting congeners, in the overall shape and size of hard parts, but differs in having a flat median piece in the structure of the AMP (antero-median protuberance of the ventral bar), copulatory organ with non-ornamented initial part and longer vaginal tube, compared to raised median piece in the AMP, ornamented initial part and comparatively shorter vaginal tube in L. careyensis. Ligophorus kederai n. sp. is similar to L. fenestrum, a coexisting congener, in having fenestrated ventral anchors, but differs in having longer points and narrower base. Ligophorus fenestrum, unlike L. kederai n. sp., also possesses fenestrated dorsal anchors. The principal component analysis (PCA) scatterplots indicate that the two new and eight known Ligophorus species from Malaysian mugilids can be differentiated based on the morphometries of their anchors, ventral bars and copulatory organ separately and when combined together. Numerical taxonomy (NT) analyses based on Jaccard's Index of Similarity and neighbour-joining clustering, is used to facilitate comparison of these two new species with the 50 known Ligophorus based on morphological and metric characters. The two new species are different from each other and the other 50 species in the overall shapes and sizes of hard parts, as indicated by the NT analyses.