Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Al Ali J, Vaine CA, Shah S, Campion L, Hakoum A, Supnet ML, et al.
    Mov Disord, 2021 01;36(1):206-215.
    PMID: 32975318 DOI: 10.1002/mds.28305
    BACKGROUND: X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism is a rare neurological disease endemic to the Philippines. Dystonic symptoms appear in males at the mean age of 40 years and progress to parkinsonism with degenerative pathology in the striatum. A retrotransposon inserted in intron 32 of the TAF1 gene leads to alternative splicing in the region and a reduction of the full-length mRNA transcript.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to discover cell-based and biofluid-based biomarkers for X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism.

    METHODS: RNA from patient-derived neural progenitor cells and their secreted extracellular vesicles were used to screen for dysregulation of TAF1 expression. Droplet-digital polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of TAF1 mRNA fragments 5' and 3' to the retrotransposon insertion and the disease-specific splice variant TAF1-32i in whole-blood RNA. Plasma levels of neurofilament light chain were measured using single-molecule array.

    RESULTS: In neural progenitor cells and their extracellular vesicles, we confirmed that the TAF1-3'/5' ratio was lower in patient samples, whereas TAF1-32i expression is higher relative to controls. In whole-blood RNA, both TAF1-3'/5' ratio and TAF1-32i expression can differentiate patient (n = 44) from control samples (n = 18) with high accuracy. Neurofilament light chain plasma levels were significantly elevated in patients (n = 43) compared with both carriers (n = 16) and controls (n = 21), with area under the curve of 0.79.

    CONCLUSIONS: TAF1 dysregulation in blood serves as a disease-specific biomarker that could be used as a readout for monitoring therapies targeting TAF1 splicing. Neurofilament light chain could be used in monitoring neurodegeneration and disease progression in patients. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

    Matched MeSH terms: Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics
  2. Tan SH, Chung HH, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010 Mar 12;393(3):397-403.
    PMID: 20138842 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.130
    Despite the known importance of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during development, very little is known about their utilization and biosynthesis during embryogenesis. Combining the advantages of the existence of a complete range of enzymes required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis and the well established developmental biology tools in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of three LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, Elovl2-like elongase (elovl2), Elovl5-like elongase (elovl5) and fatty acyl desaturase (fad) in different zebrafish developmental stages. The presence of all three genes in the brain as early as 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) implies LC-PUFA synthesis activity in the embryonic brain. This expression eventually subsides from 72 hpf onwards, coinciding with the initiation of elovl2 and fad expression in the liver and intestine, 2 organs known to be involved in adult fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, these patterns strongly suggest the necessity for localized production of LC-PUFA in the brain during in early stage embryos prior to the maturation of the liver and intestine. Interestingly, we also showed a specific expression of elovl5 in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the zebrafish pronephros, suggesting a possible new role for LC-PUFA in kidney development and function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics*
  3. Jaya-Ram A, Shu-Chien AC, Kuah MK
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2016 Aug;42(4):1107-22.
    PMID: 26842427 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-016-0201-y
    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics
  4. Zhao B, Lee EJ, Yeoh PN, Gong NH
    Pharmacogenetics, 1998 Aug;8(4):299-304.
    PMID: 9731716
    The xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are important for the biotransformation and/or bioactivation of drugs and carcinogens. NATs are coded for in humans by two distinct genes, designated NAT1 and NAT2. NAT1, which was originally thought to be monomorphic, was recently reported to exhibit variation in human populations. Recent studies suggested that a genetic polymorphism of NAT1 may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. The distributions of NAT1 allele and genotype frequencies in unrelated individuals among Indian (n = 140), Malay (n = 122) and Chinese (n = 181) populations in Singapore were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific-polymerase chain reaction. The allelic frequencies of NAT1*3, NAT1*4, NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 among Indians were 0.3, 0.51, 0.17 and 0.02, respectively. The corresponding NAT1 allelic frequencies in Malays were 0.29, 0.30, 0.39 and 0.02, respectively, and were similar to those in Chinese in the region. The allelic frequencies of NAT1*3, NAT1*4, NAT1*10 and NAT1*11 among Chinese were 0.33, 0.35, 0.30 and 0.02, respectively. These findings are of importance for the determination of cancer risk in these populations. In addition, nucleotide changes at positions 350-351 (GG to CC) and 497-499 (GGG to CCC) of the NAT1 gene were not found in the alleles of the populations studied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics*
  5. Soo HJ, Sam KK, Chong J, Lau NS, Ting SY, Kuah MK, et al.
    J Fish Biol, 2020 Jul;97(1):83-99.
    PMID: 32222967 DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14328
    The biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), a process to convert C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or arachidonic acid (ARA), requires the concerted activities of two enzymes, the fatty acyl desaturase (Fads) and elongase (Elovl). This study highlights the cloning, functional characterisation and tissue expression pattern of a Fads and an Elovl from the Boddart's goggle-eyed goby (Boleophthalmus boddarti), a mudskipper species widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned fads and elovl are clustered with other teleost orthologs, respectively. The investigation of the genome of several mudskipper species, namely Boleophthalmus pectinirostris, Periophthalmus schlosseri and Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, revealed a single Fads2 and two elongases, Elovl5 and Elovl4 for each respective species. A heterologous yeast assay indicated that the B. boddarti Fads2 possessed low desaturation activity on C18 PUFA and no desaturation on C20 and C22 PUFA substrates. In comparison, the Elovl5 showed a wide range of substrate specificity, with a capacity to elongate C18, C20 and C22 PUFA substrates. An amino acid residue that affects the capacity to elongate C22:5n-3 was identified in the B. boddarti Elovl5. Both genes are highly expressed in brain tissue. Among all tissues, DHA is highly concentrated in neuron-rich tissues, whereas EPA is highly deposited in gills. Taken together, the results showed that due to the inability to perform desaturation steps, B. boddarti is unable to biosynthesise LC-PUFA, relying on dietary intake to acquire these nutrients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics
  6. Mohd-Yusof NY, Monroig O, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Tocher DR
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2010 Dec;36(4):827-43.
    PMID: 20532815 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-010-9409-4
    Lates calcarifer, commonly known as the Asian sea bass or barramundi, is an interesting species that has great aquaculture potential in Asia including Malaysia and also Australia. We have investigated essential fatty acid metabolism in this species, focusing on the endogenous highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis pathway using both biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) and elongase (Elovl) cDNAs were cloned and functional characterization identified them as ∆6 Fad and Elovl5 elongase enzymes, respectively. The ∆6 Fad was equally active toward 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6, and Elovl5 exhibited elongation activity for C18-20 and C20-22 elongation and a trace of C22-24 activity. The tissue profile of gene expression for ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes, showed brain to have the highest expression of both genes compared to all other tissues. The results of tissue fatty acid analysis showed that the brain contained more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) than flesh, liver and intestine. The HUFA synthesis activity in isolated hepatocytes and enterocytes using [1-(14)C]18:3n-3 as substrate was very low with the only desaturated product detected being 18:4n-3. These findings indicate that L. calcarifer display an essential fatty acid pattern similar to other marine fish in that they appear unable to synthesize HUFA from C18 substrates. High expression of ∆6 fad and elovl5 genes in brain may indicate a role for these enzymes in maintaining high DHA levels in neural tissues through conversion of 20:5n-3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics
  7. Almabhouh FA, Osman K, Ibrahim SF, Gupalo S, Gnanou J, Ibrahim E, et al.
    Asian J Androl, 2016 10 18;19(6):647-654.
    PMID: 27748315 DOI: 10.4103/1008-682X.183379
    This study examined the effects of melatonin on leptin-induced changes in sperm parameters in adult rats. Five groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either leptin or leptin and melatonin or melatonin for 6 weeks. Leptin was given daily via the intraperitoneal route (60 μg kg-1 body weight) and melatonin was given in drinking water (10 mg kg-1 or 20 mg kg-1 body weight per day). Upon completion, sperm count, sperm morphology, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, Comet assay, TUNEL assay, gene expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes, respiratory chain reaction enzymes, DNA damage, and apoptosis genes were estimated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Sperm count was significantly lower whereas the fraction of sperm with abnormal morphology, the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and sperm DNA fragmentation were significantly higher in rats treated with leptin only. Microarray analysis revealed significant upregulation of apoptosis-inducing factor, histone acetyl transferase, respiratory chain reaction enzyme, cell necrosis and DNA repair genes, and downregulation of antioxidant enzyme genes in leptin-treated rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed significant decreases in glutathione peroxidase 1 expression with increases in the expression of apoptosis-inducing factor and histone acetyl transferase in leptin-treated rats. There was no change in the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3). In conclusion, the adverse effects of leptin on sperm can be prevented by concurrent melatonin administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics
  8. Kuah MK, Jaya-Ram A, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2015 Mar;1851(3):248-60.
    PMID: 25542509 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.12.012
    The endogenous production of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in carnivorous teleost species inhabiting freshwater environments is poorly understood. Although a predatory lifestyle could potentially supply sufficient LC-PUFA to satisfy the requirements of these species, the nutrient-poor characteristics of the freshwater food web could impede this advantage. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterisation of an elongase enzyme in the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway from striped snakehead (Channa striata), which is a strict freshwater piscivore that shows high deposition of LC-PUFA in its flesh. We also functionally characterised a previously isolated fatty acyl desaturase cDNA from this species. Results showed that the striped snakehead desaturase is capable of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturation activities, while the elongase showed the characteristics of Elovl5 elongases. Collectively, these findings reveal that striped snakehead exhibits the genetic resources to synthesise docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3). Both genes are expressed at considerable levels in the brain and the liver. In liver, both genes were up-regulated by dietary C18 PUFA, although this increase did not correspond to a significant rise in the deposition of muscle LC-PUFA. Brain tissue of fish fed with plant oil diets showed higher expression of fads2 gene compared to fish fed with fish oil-based diet, which could ensure DHA levels remain constant under limited dietary DHA intake. This suggests the importance of DHA production from EPA via the ∆4 desaturation step in order to maintain an optimal reserve of DHA in the neuronal tissues of carnivores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Acetyltransferases/genetics
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links