The Pediacus Shuckard fauna of Asia and Australasia is revised. Eighteen species are recorded, described and illustrated from the regions and a key to species is provided. Nine new species are described: Pediacus australis sp. nov. (Australia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand), P. carinatus sp. nov. (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand), P. fujianensis sp. nov. (China), P. japonicoides sp. nov. (Taiwan); P. leei sp. nov. (Taiwan), P. pendleburyi sp. nov. (Malaysia), P. sinensis sp. nov. (China), P. taiwanensis sp. nov. (Taiwan) and P. thomasi sp. nov. (Taiwan). A checklist of the Pediacus fauna of the world is given, listing a total of 31 species.
Three species have been recognized in the genus Geoparnus Besuchet, 1978, all collected by sifting ground debris from tropical rainforests of Malaysia. The new species Geoparnus loebli sp. nov. is described; morphological similarities to known species G setifer Besuchet, 1978 and G rhinoceros Kodada, Jach, Ciampor Jr & (Camporova-Zat'ovicova, 2007 are discussed. Habitus of adult, male and female genitalia as well as other diagnostic characters are illustrated.
The stereoselective reaction of an allyl bromide with an aldehyde mediated by a low valency bismuth species was the key reaction in stereoselective syntheses of (4S,6R,8R,10S,16S)- and (4S,6R,8R,10S,16R)-4,6,8,10,16-pentamethyldocosanes. (13)C NMR data for these compounds confirmed that the cuticular hydrocarbon isolated from the cane beetle Antitrogus parvulus was the (4S,6R,8R,10S,16S)-stereoisomer.
Anew hydrophilid genus Chimaerocyon gen. nov. containing two species, C. shimadai sp. nov. (Malaysia: Pahang) and C. sumatranus sp. nov. (Indonesia: Sumatra), is described. Specimens of C. shimadai were collected from brood cells in anest of Pheidole singaporensis Özdikmen, 2010. The biology of C. sumatranus remains unknown. A molecular phylogeny based on four genes (cox1, cox2, 18S and 28S) supports the placement of the genus as deeply nested within the Cercyon-group of the tribe Megasternini. This position is supported by the subdistal position of the median spur in the hind wing (unique to Megasternini) and the presence of sucking disc on male maxilla (unique for Megastemini+Sphaeridiini). The remaining external morphology differs substantially from other representatives of Megasternini. The hypothesis that the aberrant morphology of Chimaerocyon gen. nov. is a consequence of myrmecophily is discussed.
Five new species of Notosacantha are described from Borneo (Sabah): N. flaviventris Borowiec and Takizawa sp. nov. (also described from Sumatra), N. flavosuturata Świętojańska and Takizawa sp. nov., N. minuta Świętojańska and Takizawa sp. nov., N. obscuricornis Borowiec and Takizawa sp. nov. and N. ovoidea Borowiec and Świętojańska sp. nov. New records for nine other species, a check list and key to Bornean Notosacantha are given. Myrsinaceae and Myristicaceae are new host plant families for tortoise beetles and Ardisia elliptica Thunb., Ardisia sp., Embelia sp., Gironiema sp. (all Myrsinaceae) and Knema sp. (Myristicaceae) are new host plants for Notosacantha.
The genus Morphosphaera Baly, 1861 is revised. Eleven species are considered as valid, including, M. takizawai sp. nov. (Mt. Basor, 90 km N of Gua Musang, Malaysia, W. Kelantan), described from Malaysia and Indonesia. Color photos of habitus and drawings of diagnostic characters from eleven species are presented. The following synonymies are proposed: M. sodalis Chen, 1935 and M. brunnea Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. albipennis Allard, 1889; M. margaritacea Laboissière, 1930, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and M. prava Maulik, 1936 are junior synonyms of M. coomani Laboissière, 1930; M. gracilicornis Chen, 1963 is a junior synonym of M. maculicollis Baly, 1861; M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. cincticollis Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. gingkoae Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963, and M. metallescens Gressitt & Kimoto, 1963 are junior synonyms of M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886. The type material of M. impunctata Allard, 1890 from the Philippines was not found and its taxonomic status remains uncertain. Morphosphaera peregrina Weise, 1913 is transferred to the genus Borneola Mohamedsaid, 1998 nov. comb. A neotype is designated for Chrysomela japonica Hornstedt, 1788. Lectotypes are designated for the following species: Adorium chrysomeloides Bates, 1866, A. japonicum Baly, 1874, Morphosphaera albipennis Allard, 1889, M. bimaculata Chûjô, 1938, M. caerulea Jacoby, 1896, M. cavaleriei Laboissière, 1930, M. collaris Laboissière, 1930, M. formosa Laboissière, 1930, M. marginata Laboissière, 1930, M. montivaga Maulik, 1936, M. prava Maulik, 1936, M. purpurea Laboissière, 1930, M. sumatrana Jacoby, 1886, M. viridipennis Laboissière, 1930, and Galerucida simplex Weise, 1922.
A new species, Megatyrus femoralis sp. n., is described from the Koshi Zone, East Nepal, with major diagnostic features illustrated. Megatyrus masumotoi Nomura, Sakchoowong & Chanpaisaeng, originally described from southwestern Thailand, is recorded from the Noring Timur Mountain, West Malaysia. The above data extends the known range of Megatyrus about 1,200 km to the west, and 870 km to the south.
Two new species of Ancyronyx Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Elmidae) are described from Borneo: A. pulcherrimus (Brunei) and A. reticulatus (Sabah). Habitus views, illustrations of important characters as well as plastron structures of Ancyronyx reticulatus are presented and discussed.
The effect of sexual selection on species persistence remains unclear. The cost of bearing ornaments or armaments might increase extinction risk, but sexual selection can also enhance the spread of beneficial alleles and increase the removal of deleterious alleles, potentially reducing extinction risk. Here we investigate the effect of sexual selection on species persistence in a community of 34 species of dung beetles across a gradient of environmental disturbance ranging from old growth forest to oil palm plantation. Horns are sexually selected traits used in contests between males, and we find that both horn presence and relative size are strongly positively associated with species persistence and abundance in altered habitats. Testes mass, an indicator of post-copulatory selection, is, however, negatively linked with the abundance of species within the most disturbed habitats. This study represents the first evidence from a field system of a population-level benefit from pre-copulatory sexual selection.
Pselaphinae is a species-rich beetle subfamily found globally, with many exhibiting myrmecophily-a symbiotic association with ants. Pselaphine-ant associations vary from facultative to obligate, but direct behavioral observations still remain scarce. Pselaphines are speciose and ecologically abundant within tropical leaf litter invertebrate communities where ants dominate, implying a potentially important ecological role that may be affected by habitat disturbances that impact ants. In this study, we measured and analyzed putative functional traits of leaf litter pselaphines associated with myrmecophily through morphometric analysis. We calculated "myrmecophile functional diversity" of pselaphines at different sites and examined this measure's relationship with ant abundance, in both old growth and logged rainforest sites in Sabah, Borneo. We show that myrmecophile functional diversity of pselaphine beetles increases as ant abundance increases. Old growth rainforest sites support a high abundance of ants, which is associated with a high abundance of probable myrmecophilous pselaphines. These results suggest a potential link between adult morphological characters and the functional role these beetles play in rainforest litter as ecological interaction partners with ants.
The net-winged beetle genus Alyculus Kasantsev is reported from Peninsular Malaysia for the first time and a new species, A. malaypeninsularis sp. nov., is described and illustrated. An expanded identification key to Alyculus males is provided and the biology and distribution of the species are discussed.
New species of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group are described from SE Asia. Altogether 34 species are newly described, including Scirtes beccus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. bocakorum sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. crockerensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. decorus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. dumogensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. gunongmulensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ishikawai sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. kinabalensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. kundasangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. lambriensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. leuserensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. luteus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. malaisei sp. nov. (Myanmar), S. melinauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. noonadan sp. nov. (Philippines), S. pallicolor sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. penampangensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. phoupanensis sp. nov. (Laos), S. prodigiosus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. punctatus sp. nov. (Philippines), S. quasibalehensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. ranauensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. sarawakensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. seblatensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibayensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sibolangitensis sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulawesicus sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. sulcigeroides sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. talinisensis sp. nov. (Philippines), S. ulukimanisensis sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. velutinus sp. nov. (Malaysia), S. vietnamicus sp. nov. (Vietnam), S. wallacei sp. nov. (Indonesia), S. yangsinensis sp. nov. (Vietnam). New localities of six species are provided. An updated identification key, checklist and a summary of distributional data are included. Probability of the occurrence of the Scirtes flavoguttatus species-group was evaluated with an analysis in MaxEnt software. It is highly plausible that members of the group occur in most mountainous rainforests of SE Asia.
The Oriental pselaphine genus Horniella Raffray, 1905 (tribe Tyrini: subtribe Somatipionina) is redefined and revised. Twenty-five new species are described: H. centralis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. confragosa Yin & Li, sp. n., H. dao Yin & Li, sp. n., H. hongkongensis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. nakhi Yin & Li, sp. n., H. schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n., H. sichuanica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. simplaria Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. tianmuensis Yin & Li, sp. n. from China, H. himalayica Yin & Li, sp. n. from Nepal and North India, H. asymmetrica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. burckhardti Yin & Li, sp. n., H. intricata Yin & Li, sp. n., H. kaengkrachan Yin & Li, sp. n., H. khaosabap Yin & Li, sp. n., H. loebli Yin & Li, sp. n., H. phuphaman Yin & Li, sp. n., H. prolixo Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. schwendingeri Yin & Li, sp. n. from Thailand, H. philippina Yin & Li, sp. n. from the Philippines, H. awana Yin & Li, sp. n., H. gigas Yin & Li, sp. n., H. pilosa Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. smetanai Yin & Li, sp. n. from Malaysia, and H. cibodas Yin & Li, sp. n. from Indonesia. The two previously described species, H. hirtella Raffray, 1901 (type species) from Sri Lanka and H. falcis Yin & Li, 2010 from China are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for H. hirtella. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic features, an identification key, and distributional maps for all species are provided. Eleven unidentified species represented only by females are left unnamed. Illustrations of the habitus and the genital complex, and label data of these species are given to facilitate future study. All available data indicates that species of Horniella typically inhabit leaf litter of various kinds of forests, and can be most efficiently collected by sifting and use of Winkler-Moczarski extractors.
Pycnotarsobrentus inuiae Maruyama & Bartolozzi, gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Brentinae: Eremoxenini) is described from the Lambir Hills National Park, Borneo (Sarawak, Malaysia) based on specimens collected from Crematogaster difformis F. Smith, 1857 ant nests in the myrmecophytic epiphytic ferns Platycerium crustacea Copel. and Lecanopteris ridleyi H. Christ. A second species of Pycnotarsobrentus is known from Malaysia but is represented by only one female and consequently not yet described pending discovery of a male. Pycnotarsobrentus belongs to the tribe Eremoxenini and shares some character states with the African genus Pericordus Kolbe, 1883. No species of Eremoxenini with similar morphological modifications are known from the Oriental region.
Tmesiphodimerus Coulon and Yin, new genus (Pselaphitae: Tmesiphorini) is proposed for T. sinensis Yin and Coulon, new species from Hainan, South China (type species), and T. malaysianus Coulon and Yin, new species from Perak, West Malaysia. The new taxa are described, with their major diagnostic features illustrated. The taxonomic placement of Tmesiphodimerus is discussed.
The cavities of bamboos (Poaceae) are used by various animals. Most of the animals access these cavities either by existing cracks or by excavating bamboos with soft walls or small, thin-walled bamboos. Only a few animals excavate into the cavities of large and thick- and hard-walled internodes of mature bamboos. We studied two lizard beetle species (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae), Doubledaya ruficollis and Oxylanguria acutipennis, that excavate into large internode cavities of recently dead mature bamboos and have morphological modifications. We observed that females of D. ruficollis used their mandibles to bore oviposition holes on Schizostachyum sp. (mean wall thickness = 3.00 mm) and O. acutipennis did so on Dendrocalamus sp. (3.37 mm) bamboos. Previous studies suggested that the markedly asymmetrical mandibles and needle-like ovipositors of females in the genus Doubledaya are adaptive traits for excavating hard-walled bamboos for oviposition. Therefore, we measured their mandibular lengths and ovipositor lengths. D. ruficollis females had greater asymmetry in the mandibles and shorter and less-sclerotized ovipositors than females of congeners using small bamboos. In contrast, O. acutipennis females had slightly asymmetrical mandibles and elongated, well-sclerotized ovipositors. Oviposition holes of D. ruficollis were cone-shaped (evenly tapering), whereas those of O. acutipennis were funnel-shaped (tube-like at the internal apex). This suggests that D. ruficollis females excavate oviposition holes using the mandibles only, and O. acutipennis females use both the mandibles and ovipositors. These differences suggest different oviposition-associated morphological specialization for using large bamboos: the extremely asymmetrical mandibles in D. ruficollis and elongated, needle-like ovipositors in O. acutipennis.
The ground beetle genus Hexachaetus Chaudoir, 1871 is re-defined and reviewed. Bearing six setae on ligula is no more considered as a crucial characteristic for Hexachaetus. Members of Hexachaetus share the following combination of morphological features: body polish, smooth, and impunctate, ligula more or less dilated at apex, bearing 4, 6, or even 12 setae apically, prosternal process unbordered at apex, elytra distinctly and obliquely truncated at apex, with the apical inner angles very sharp in most species (except for H. mulan n. sp.), and interval 3 with anterior and posterior setiferous pores (median one lacking). The members of Hexachaetus are about 20 species which could be divided into six species groups. All except angulatus species group are dealt with in this paper, with descriptions of four new species: H. kirschenhoferi n. sp. (Indonesia: Kalimantan), H. brunki n. sp. (Malaysia: N. Borneo), H. vietnamensis n. sp. (Vietnam: Annam) and H. mulan n. sp. (Malaysia: Perak and Pahang). H. maindroni Tian & Deuve, 2006 is proposed as a subspecies of H. lateralis Guérin, 1843, n. stat. A key to species groups and species of the genus is also provided.
The species of the genus Coeligetes Jacoby, 1884 distributed in Malaysia and Indonesia are revised, illustrated and keyed. New species, C. howardi sp. nov. from Borneo is described. New synonymy Coeligetes submetallica Jacoby, 1884 = C. wilcoxi Mohamedsaid, 1994 (syn. nov.) is proposed. New genus and species Coeligetoides trifurcatus gen. nov., sp. nov. (Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia and Thailand) is described, illustrated and compared with related genera.