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  1. Praveena SM, Lui TS, Hamin N, Razak SQ, Aris AZ
    Environ Monit Assess, 2016 Jul;188(7):442.
    PMID: 27353134 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-016-5438-5
    The occurrence and estrogenic activities of steroid estrogens, such as the natural estrone (E1), 17β estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3), as well as the synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), were investigated in eight sampling points along the Langat River (Malaysia). Surface water samples were collected at 0.5 m and surface sediment 0-5 cm from the river surface. Instrument analysis of steroid estrogens was determined by UPLC-ESI-MS with an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (Perkin Elmer FX15) coupled to a Q Trap function mass spectrophotometer (model 3200: AB Sciex). Steroid estrogen concentrations were higher in the Langat River sediments than those in its surface water. In surface water, E1 was not detected in any sampling point, E2 was only detected in two midstream sampling points (range 0-0.004 ng/L), E3 in three sampling points (range 0-0.002 ng/L), and EE2 in four sampling points (range 0-0.02 ng/L). E1 and E2 were detected in sediments from all sampling points, E3 in five sampling points, while EE2 only in one midstream sample (3.29E-4 ng/g). Sewage treatment plants, farming waste, and agricultural activities particularly present midstream and downstream were identified as potential sources of estrogens. Estrogenic activity expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEQs) was below 1 ng/L in all samples for both surface water and sediment, indicating therefore a low potential estrogenic risk to the aquatic environment. Although the health risks are still uncertain for drinking water consumers exposed to low levels of steroid estrogen concentrations, Langat River water is unacceptable for direct drinking purposes without treatment. Further studies of endocrine disruptors in Malaysian waters are highly recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis*
  2. Ting YF, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Ismail SNS, Rasdi I
    Ecotoxicology, 2017 Dec;26(10):1327-1335.
    PMID: 28975452 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-017-1857-5
    Steroid estrogens such as 17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2) are highly potent estrogens that widely detected in environmental samples. Mathematical modelling such as concentration addition (CA) and estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQ) models are usually associated with measuring techniques to assess risk, predict the mixture response and evaluate the estrogenic activity of mixture. Wastewater has played a crucial role because wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is the major sources of estrogenic activity in aquatic environment. The aims of this is to determine E2 and EE2 concentrations in six WWTPs effluent, to predict the estrogenic activity of the WWTPs effluent using CA and EEQ models where lastly the effectiveness of two models is evaluated. Results showed that all the six WWTPs effluent had relative high E2 concentration (35.1-85.2 ng/L) compared to EE2 (0.02-1.0 ng/L). The estrogenic activity predicted by CA model was similar among the six WWTPs (105.4 ng/L), due to the similarity of individual dose potency ratio calculated by respective WWTPs. The predicted total EEQ was ranged from 35.1 EEQ-ng/L to 85.3 EEQ-ng/L, explained by high E2 concentration in WWTPs effluent and E2 EEF value that standardized to 1.0 μg/L. The CA model is more effective than EEQ model in estrogenic activity prediction because EEQ model used less data and causes disassociation from the predicted behavior. Although both models predicted relative high estrogenic activity in WWTPs effluent, dilution effects in receiving river may lower the estrogenic response to aquatic inhabitants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis
  3. Handajani J, Effendi N, Sosroseno W
    F1000Res, 2020;9:186.
    PMID: 32399205 DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.22536.2
    Background: Estrogen expression levels may be associated with age and may affect keratinization of the hard palate. Keratinized epithelium expresses cytokeratin 5 and 14 in the basal layer. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between the levels of salivary estrogen and number of cytokeratin 5-positive oral epithelial cells. Methods: A total of 30 female subjects were recruited and divided into children, adults and elderly (N=10 per group). Salivary estrogen levels and cytokeratin 5-expressing oral epithelial cells were assessed using ELISA and immunohistological methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with post hoc LSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that both the number of cytokeratin 5-positive cells and the level of salivary estrogen were significantly higher in adults but decreased in the elderly, as compared with those in children (p<0.05). Furthermore, the levels of salivary estrogen were significantly correlated with the number of cytokeratin 5-positive cells (r=0.815). The ANOVA result showed significance difference cytokeratin 5 expression and estrogen level (p<0.05). The post hoc LSD test revealed cytokeratin 5 expression and estrogen level to be significantly different in children, adults, and elderly participants (p<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that the profile of salivary estrogen and oral epithelial cell-expressed cytokeratin 5 may be positively correlated with age and depend on age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis*
  4. Duong CN, Ra JS, Cho J, Kim SD, Choi HK, Park JH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2010 Jan;78(3):286-93.
    PMID: 19931116 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.10.048
    The effects of treatment processes on estrogenicity were evaluated by examining estradiol equivalent (EEQ) concentrations in influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) located along Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers in Korea. The occurrence and distribution of estrogenic chemicals were also estimated for surface water in Korea and compared with seven other Asian countries including Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia. Target compounds were nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and genistein (Gen). Water samples were pretreated and analyzed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the treatment processes of Korean STPs were sufficient to reduce the estrogenic activity of municipal wastewater. The concentrations of phenolic xenoestrogens (i.e., NP, OP and BPA) in samples of Yeongsan and Seomjin rivers were smaller than those reported by previous studies in Korea. In most samples taken from the seven Asian countries, the presence of E2 and EE2 was a major contributor toward estrogenic activity. The EEQ concentrations in surface water samples of the seven Asian countries were at a higher level in comparison to that reported in European countries, America and Japan. However, further studies with more sampling frequencies and sampling areas should be carried out for better evaluation of the occurrence and distribution of estrogenic compounds in these Asian countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis*
  5. Fang TY, Praveena SM, deBurbure C, Aris AZ, Ismail SN, Rasdi I
    Chemosphere, 2016 Dec;165:358-368.
    PMID: 27665296 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.051
    In recent years, environmental concerns over ultra-trace levels of steroid estrogens concentrations in water samples have increased because of their adverse effects on human and animal life. Special attention to the analytical techniques used to quantify steroid estrogens in water samples is therefore increasingly important. The objective of this review was to present an overview of both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques available for the determination of steroid estrogens in water samples, evidencing their respective potential advantages and limitations using the Need, Approach, Benefit, and Competition (NABC) approach. The analytical techniques highlighted in this review were instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques namely gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA), radio immuno assay (RIA), yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, and human breast cancer cell line proliferation (E-screen) assay. The complexity of water samples and their low estrogenic concentrations necessitates the use of highly sensitive instrumental analytical techniques (GC-MS and LC-MS) and non-instrumental analytical techniques (ELISA, RIA, YES assay and E-screen assay) to quantify steroid estrogens. Both instrumental and non-instrumental analytical techniques have their own advantages and limitations. However, the non-instrumental ELISA analytical techniques, thanks to its lower detection limit and simplicity, its rapidity and cost-effectiveness, currently appears to be the most reliable for determining steroid estrogens in water samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis*
  6. Ting YF, Praveena SM
    Environ Monit Assess, 2017 Apr;189(4):178.
    PMID: 28342046 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-017-5890-x
    Steroid estrogens, such as estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), are natural and synthetic hormones released into the environment through incomplete sewage discharge. This review focuses on the sources of steroid estrogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The mechanisms and fate of steroid estrogens throughout the entire wastewater treatment system are also discussed, and relevant information on regulatory aspects is given. Municipal, pharmaceutical industry, and hospitals are the main sources of steroid estrogens that enter WWTPs. A typical WWTP comprises primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment units. Sorption and biodegradation are the main mechanisms for removal of steroid estrogens from WWTPs. The fate of steroid estrogens in WWTPs depends on the types of wastewater treatment systems. Steroid estrogens in the primary treatment unit are removed by sorption onto primary sludge, followed by sorption onto micro-flocs and biodegradation by microbes in the secondary treatment unit. Tertiary treatment employs nitrification, chlorination, or UV disinfection to improve the quality of the secondary effluent. Activated sludge treatment systems for steroid estrogens exhibit a removal efficiency of up to 100%, which is higher than that of the trickling filter treatment system (up to 75%). Moreover, the removal efficiency of advance treatment systems exceeds 90%. Regulatory aspects related to steroid estrogens are established, especially in the European Union. Japan is the only Asian country that implements a screening program and is actively involved in endocrine disruptor testing and assessment. This review improves our understanding of steroid estrogens in WWTPs, proposes main areas to be improved, and provides current knowledge on steroid estrogens in WWTPs for sustainable development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Estrogens/analysis*
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