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  1. Tan PC, Rajasingam G, Devi S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2008 May;111(5):1111-7.
    PMID: 18448743 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816a49fc
    To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.

    METHODOLOGY: Cord blood samples from a pilot screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in 1995 at Ipoh city and surrounding district hospitals were screened anonymously for HIV 1 and 2. HIV status was determined using chemiluminescent technology. Positive samples were retested using the Genelavia Mixt assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 4927 samples were tested. The ethnic breakdown included 51.7% Malays, 18.9% Chinese, 14.3% Indian, 2.3% Others and 12.9% unknown. The geographical distribution of samples was 73.9% urban, 24.2% rural and 1.9% unknown. The seroprevalence of HIV positivity was 3.25 per 1000 deliveries (95% CI: 1.92-5.16). Seroprevalence was higher for samples from rural and Malay mothers.

    CONCLUSION: The high seroprevalence in this study suggests that the spread of HIV is far wider than that anticipated by mandatory national reporting. It also supports antenatal screening and the use of antiretroviral therapy as an important strategy to reduce perinatal transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  3. Lim CT, Thong MK, Parasakthi N, Ngeow YF
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 Jul;26(4):421-5.
    PMID: 9395802
    Between January 1984 and December 1994, 30 cases of early neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) septicaemia were managed in the Neonatal Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Two neonates were outborn and 28 were inborn, giving an average annual incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia of 0.4/1000 livebirths among inborn babies. In a separate survey over a three-month period, GBS genital carriage rate among 196 parturients was found to be 9.7%. Of the infants with GBS septicaemia, the mean gestational age was 37.5 +/- 3.8 weeks and the mean birthweight was 2540 +/- 716 g. Twelve (40%) were preterm infants and 14 (47%) were low birthweight infants. Male and female infants were almost equally affected. Prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal pyrexia accounted for only 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) of the cases respectively. Twenty-four (80%) neonates had onset of symptoms within 6 hours of life and respiratory symptoms were observed in 24 (80%) of the cases, while meningitis was uncommon. Six (20%) neonates died. Preterm and low birthweight infants had higher mortality than their term counterparts: 42% versus 6% and 36% versus 6% respectively. Of those who died, 4 (67%) required respiratory support right from birth and the mean time of onset of symptoms was 4 hours (range 0 to 21 hours) and the duration of survival was only 28.8 hours (range 12 to 38 hours). As the incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia was low, mass screening and chemoprophylaxis for GBS were not recommended. All the GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin, thus one of these antibiotics should be included in the antimicrobial therapy of septic neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  4. Chan WK, Yeoh KY, Lim CY, Lai SM, Lee JL, Leow AHR, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):137-140.
    PMID: 29962496 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There have been no published data on the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of all the children of HBsAg-positive mothers who delivered at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 and 2000.

    RESULTS: A total of 60 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 154 children participated in the study. HBsAg was detected in four children (2.6%) while IgG antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgG) was detected in seventeen children (11.0%). The mother's age at childbirth was significantly lower in the children with detectable HBsAg (22.5±6.1 years vs. 29.7±4.5 years, p=0.043) and anti-HBc IgG (26.6±6.1 years vs. 30.0±4.3 years, p=0.004). Children born in the 1980s were significantly more likely to have detectable HBsAg (18.8% vs. 0.7%, p=0.004) and anti-HBc IgG (37.5% vs. 8.0%, p=0.000) compared with those born later. All children with detectable HBsAg were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin was either not given or the administration status was unknown. The majority of mothers with chronic HBV infection (70.4%) were not under any regular follow-up for their chronic HBV infection and the main reason was the lack of awareness of the need to do so (47.4%).

    CONCLUSION: Transmission of HBV infection among children of HBsAg-positive mothers in Malaysia is low. However, attention needs to be given to the high rate of HBsAgpositive mothers who are not on any regular follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data
  5. Nhidza AF, Naicker T, Stray-Pedersen B, Gumbo F, Chisango T, Sibanda E, et al.
    Afr J Reprod Health, 2018 Sep;22(3):43-50.
    PMID: 30381931 DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.5
    This study aimed at investigating the maternal characteristics that in turn influence the immunological status of infants in asymptomatic enteric pathogen carriers in mother baby pairs (MBPs) in a high HIV burdened population in Harare, Zimbabwe. BIOPLEX immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples from 39 MBPs for 27 cytokines and 6 immunoglobulins. The MBP were purposively selected based on HIV infection and Entamoeba histolytica carriage. Logistic regression was used to identify any link between maternal demographic and clinical data with infant cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. Maternal E. histolytica carriers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α cytokines (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79) and high levels of IgA immunoglobulin (OR: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.45-45.06). HIV infected mothers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IgG2 (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.00) and IgA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.90) immunoglobulins. Notably, it was highly likely to deliver infants with low IgG4 levels (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.02) for maternal mean age above 30.38 years (Standard deviation 6.09) though not significant (p=0.05). Maternal E. histolytica asymptomatic carriage, and HIV-infection status result in low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α and immunoglobulins IgG2, IgG4 and IgA on their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
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