The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of altering the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diet on meat quality, fatty acid composition of muscle, and expression of lipogenic genes in the muscle of Boer goats. A total of twenty-one Boer goats (5 months old; 31.66±1.07 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments with n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios of 2.27:1 (LR), 5.01:1 (MR) and 10.38:1 (HR), fed at 3.7% of body weight. After 100 days of feeding, all goats were slaughtered and the longissimus dorsi muscle was sampled for analysis of fatty acids and gene expression. The dietary treatments did not affect (P>0.05) the carcass traits, and meat quality of growing goats. The concentrations of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, trans vaccenic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratios linearly increased (P<0.01) with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios, especially for LR in the longissimus dorsi muscle of goats. In contrast, the mRNA expression level of the PPARα and PPARγ was down-regulated and stearoyl-CoA desaturase up-regulated in the longissimus dorsi of growing goats with increasing dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results obtained indicate that the optimal n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 2.27:1 exerted beneficial effects on meat fatty acid profiles, leading towards an enrichment in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in goat intramuscular fat.
Inherent plasticity and various survival cues allow glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) to survive and proliferate under intrinsic and extrinsic stress conditions. Here, we report that GSCs depend on the adaptive activation of ER stress and subsequent activation of lipogenesis and particularly stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1), which promotes ER homeostasis, cytoprotection, and tumor initiation. Pharmacological targeting of SCD1 is particularly toxic due to the accumulation of saturated fatty acids, which exacerbates ER stress, triggers apoptosis, impairs RAD51-mediated DNA repair, and achieves a remarkable therapeutic outcome with 25%-100% cure rate in xenograft mouse models. Mechanistically, divergent cell fates under varying levels of ER stress are primarily controlled by the ER sensor IRE1, which either promotes SCD1 transcriptional activation or converts to apoptotic signaling when SCD1 activity is impaired. Taken together, the dependence of GSCs on fatty acid desaturation presents an exploitable vulnerability to target glioblastoma.
Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.
The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P CoA carboxylase (ACC) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). These findings suggest that the diet containing the combination of 2% PO and 4% SO may reduce hepatic lipogenesis, as well as lower abdominal fat content of broilers.
In this study, we hypothesized that different strains of Lactobacillus can alleviate hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis via activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that is involved in cellular energy homeostasis, in aged rats. Male rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with D-galactose daily over 12 weeks to induce aging. Treatments included (n = 6) (i) normal diet (ND), (ii) HFD, (iii) HFD-statin (lovastatin 2 mg/kg/day), (iv) HFD-Lactobacillus fermentum DR9 (10 log CFU/day), (v) HFD-Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 (10 log CFU/day), and (vi) HFD-Lactobacillus reuteri 8513d (10 log CFU/day). Rats administered with statin, DR9, and 8513d reduced serum total cholesterol levels after eight weeks (p < 0.05), while the administration of DR7 reduced serum triglycerides level after 12 weeks (p < 0.05) as compared to the HFD control. A more prominent effect was observed from the administration of DR7, where positive effects were observed, ranging from hepatic gene expressions to liver histology as compared to the control (p < 0.05); downregulation of hepatic lipid synthesis and β-oxidation gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), upregulation of hepatic sterol excretion genes of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8), lesser degree of liver steatosis, and upregulation of hepatic energy metabolisms genes AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. Taken altogether, this study illustrated that the administration of selected Lactobacillus strains led to improved lipid profiles via activation of energy and lipid metabolisms, suggesting the potentials of Lactobacillus as a promising natural intervention for alleviation of cardiovascular and liver diseases.