Ten out of 237 patients who underwent renal transplantation between 1975 and October 1986 developed tuberculosis. Most patients presented with vague symptoms, and typical symptoms commonly associated with tuberculosis were not common. Six had positive urine cultures. One patient had positive sputum and urine cultures and one had positive sputum and cerebrospinal fluid cultures for tuberculosis. In this last patient cryptococcus was also cultured from the sputum and CSF. Nine of the 10 patients responded well to antituberculosis therapy and was cured of the infection. The patient with associated cryptococcal infection died 2 months after presentation. Side effects of antituberculous therapy was minimal and easily resolved on stopping the offending drug.
An analysis of cutaneous amyloidosis cases during a five year period, from January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1987, showed that of 78 cases suffering from lichen amyloidosis, 9 patients (11.5%) were male and 71 patients (80.5%) female. Macular skin amyloidosis was observed. Sixty patients (76.9%) were found in the age range of 20-50 years. Forty-nine patients (62.8%) suffered from the disease for 2 years or less. Skin changes were mainly located on the shin areas, the posterior part of the lower thighs and posterior part of the forearms. Treatment with strong topical corticosteroids and keratolytic agents (salicylic acid ointment in higher than 3%) proved to be unsatisfactory. The literature mentions higher incidence of lichen amyloidosis in Chinese, Malaysians and Indonesians than in Caucasians.
The utility of a phantom material, based on SMR(L) [Standard Malaysian Rubber] grade natural rubber and a formulation used for the proprietary rubber phantom-material, Temex, has been examined for the 1-MeV photon-Measurement has also been performed with 60-keV photons using the radionuclide 241Am. At photon-therapy energy levels the measured response, when compared with tabulated central-axis percentage depth doses for the defined measuring conditions, produces everywhere (in the range 1-19 cm depth) better than 2% deviation. The favourable measured response characteristics combined with the ease of processing and casting the phantom material provide the basis for useful radiotherapy machine calibration and anthropomorphic dosimetry measurements. The measured mass-attenuation coefficient, at 60keV, of 0.204 cm2 g-1 (+/- 3%) is in close agreement with tabulated values for water (0.2055 cm2 g-1).
The following species are described from Indonesian birds: Isospora paddae n. sp. with oocysts 41.5-45.5 x 40.3-41.5 (44 +/- 1.15 x 41.2 +/- 0.38) and sporocysts 22.8-24.5 x 14.7-17 (24 +/- 0.55 x 16.2 +/- 0.81) from the Java sparrow, Padda oryzivora, and Isospora indonesianensis n. sp. with oocysts 39.3-43.6 x 37-40.8 (41.8 +/- 1.3 x 39.6 +/- 1.25) and sporocysts 25.6-28.4 x 15.2-18.5 (27.1 +/- 1.05 x 16.8 +/- 1.22) from the chestnut Munia, Lonchura malacca (L). The host birds belong to the order Passerorida.
Citation: Kasah A. Country report on nutrition communication activities in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: United Nations University; 1988
The primary health-care approach in Malaysia is an integral part of the government community development movement, or Gerakan Pembaharuan (Operation Renewal), launched in 1972. Nutrition communication activities form a major component of the existing basic health services. The activities are channelled through various health and nutrition services. Group talks, cooking demonstrations with group discussions, individual advice in clinics, and home visits are provided through maternal and child health services. The health education unit is responsible for producing educational materials such as posters and leaflets at both national and state levels. Health education mobile units, fully equipped with audio-visual aids, provide films and slide shows, arrange talks and dialogue sessions, and distribute leaflets. A mass media programme using radio and television was introduced in July 1983 as a joint effort of the ministries of Health and Information. The messages include a wide range of health and nutrition information. Health education materials are used extensively and local radio broadcasts will be utilized to overcome dialect problems. The applied nutrition programme started in 1969 uses an intersectoral approach towards PHC. Four main ministries are involved, namely, Health, Agriculture and Rural Development, Education, and Information. Health and nutrition education is one of the main tasks. Nutrition surveillance is also used as a channel for nutrition communications. In addition, both formal education, such as that provided in nursing schools, and in-service training for health personnel are being conducted by various training schools. The present trend of the health service is shifting from a clinic-based to a community-based approach, in which health staff work closely with community leaders. Attempts to encourage more active community participation in health activities are being made through committee meetings on development at the village and district levels.
MeSH terms: Agriculture; Audiovisual Aids; Child; Child Health Services; Communication; Health Education; Health Personnel; Inservice Training; Malaysia; Mass Media; Nursing; Primary Health Care; United Nations
The Department of Primary Care Medicine was established in UHKL in 1987. This article examines the philosophy of primary care, the clinical services provided by UHKL Family Practice Clinic and the quality assurance activities.
MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities; Family Practice; Hospitals, University; Malaysia; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital; Primary Health Care
Cardiovascular disease has been the premier cause of hospital-registered deaths in Malaysia for the past 8 years. Among these reported deaths, 31% were caused by coronary heart disease in 1982. A healthy lifestyle to control the coronary risk factors would help to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease in future.
In Malaysia malaria is still a major public health problem. At the end of 1986 it was estimated that 14.6% of the population lived in malaria prone areas and 8.4% lived in endemic areas. Malaria eradication and control programmes were instituted separately at different times in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Inaccessibility of endemic areas, opening of lands for developmental projects and emergence of drug resistant strains of P. falciparum are problems that make control of this infection difficult. Malaria vaccine is being developed.
MeSH terms: Infection; Malaria; Malaysia; Public Health; Vaccines
In Malaysia it was estimated in 1983 that 2.5 million people lived in endemic areas and from 1960 to 1984 more than 20,000 people were found to be infected. The more important filarial parasite is B. malayi. There are four main target areas for the control of filariasis, namely, mass or selective chemotherapy, reducing numbers of infected animal hosts, control of vectors and minimising human-vector contact.
Fragmentary data from reported cases show that STDs are second only to malaria in number and are more prevalent than typhoid, cholera and infectious hepatitis put together. There is lack of priority in the allocation of funding for control of STDs presently.