Eight strains of a lizard Leishmania species, L. tarentolae, were compared with four other saurian species [L. hoogstrali, L. adleri, L. agamae and Leishmania sp. LizS], with L. major from man and with Trypanosoma platydactyli, a putative lizard trypanosome, in terms of kinetoplast DNA minicircle and maxicircle sequences and in terms of nuclear chromosome patterns on orthogonal gel electrophoresis. The L. tarentolae strains fell into two major groups, one (group A) consisting of the L. tarentolae strains, UC, Krassner and Trager, derived from an Algerian gecko isolate and the other (group B) consisting of five L. tarentolae LEM strains isolated from geckos in southern France. T. platydactyli TPCL2, which was postulated by Wallbanks et al. to represent the lizard form of a French L. tarentolae strain, was closely related to the UC strain and not to the LEM strains, in all respects analyzed. Leishmania sp. LizS from a Mongolian gecko and L. hoogstrali from a Sudanese gecko showed some sequence similarities to the L. tarentolae strains, but the leishmanias said to be L. adleri from a Kenyan lacertid and L. agamae from an Israeli agamid showed no minicircle sequence similarities with lizard Leishmania and in fact were probably the same species. The maxicircle divergent region was larger in the group B strains than in the group A strains, but there were sequences in common with both groups, and not with L. hoogstrali and L. major. Four strains of L. tarentolae, the four other supposed saurian Leishmania species, three mammalian leishmanias, T. platydactyli and four other trypanosomes, T. cyclops (Malaysian macaque), T. conorrhini (Hawaiian reduviid bug), T. cruzi (man) and T. lewisi (feral rat) were analyzed for their contents of sterols and phosphoglyceride fatty acyl groups. T. platydactyli TPCL2 contained a sterol (5-dehydroepisterol), a phosphatidylcholine fatty acyl group (alpha-linolenic acid) and a phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl group (dihydrosterculic acid) characteristic of members of the genus Leishmania and not the genus Trypanosoma. The proportions of those lipids in the free sterol and phosphoglyceride fractions of T. platydactyli TPCL2 most closely resembled those seen in the Leishmania strains from Algerian, French, Mongolian and Sudanese geckos.
The aetiology, clinical and histological features of neurilemmomas of the oral and paraoral regions are briefly outlined. Two cases of atypical neurilemmomas of the tongue are described with an intent to document the partial encapsulation and multilobular distribution of the neurogenic tissue noted in these two lesions.
Indigenous healers in many societies use patterned sounds, movements, colors, shapes, and odors as therapeutic techniques; yet medical anthropology remains curiously inattentive to the aesthetics of healing rituals. Based on research among Senoi Temiar of Peninsular Malaysia, I propose an approach to the therapeutic efficacy of these symbolic forms. The music of Temiar healing ceremonies is examined from three perspectives: the formal musical structures, the indigenous theories that inform those structures, and the strategies through which they are performed and experienced by participants. Temiar healing performances present a moment of articulation between two domains of knowledge and action: musical composition, performance, and affect, on the one hand, and indigenous cosmology, illness etiology, and the pathogenicity of emotions, on the other. Songs of Temiar spirit-mediums cross-cut these two domains, and demonstrate the pragmatics of aesthetics.
Thirteen strains of dengue type 1 were isolated from the lymphocyte fractions of 69 acute phase blood samples collected at Thursday Island Hospital during 1981 and 1982. One further strain of type 1 was isolated from 7 blood samples despatched by air from Cairns Base Hospital during 1982. Four of these Australian isolates representing the beginning, middle, and end of the epidemic were examined by restriction enzyme mapping and were found to be identical for the nine restriction enzymes used. The maps differed from those derived from two Malaysian dengue type 1 strains isolated during the epidemic of 1981-82 in that country. This suggests reliance on serological typing to establish global circulation patterns of epidemic dengue is insufficient and that more specific methods such as genome mapping are useful.
1. The L-amino acid oxidase, hyaluronidase, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, protease, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A and 5'-nucleotidase activities of 47 samples of venoms from all the six species of cobra (Naja), including five subspecies of Naja naja, were examined. 2. The results demonstrated interspecific differences in the venom contents of phospholipase A, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase and phosphodiesterase. These differences in venom enzyme contents can be used for the differentiation of species of the genus Naja. 3. Thus, our results revealed a correlation between the enzyme composition of venom and the taxonomic status of the snake at the species level for the genus Naja.
Over a period of 2 months, 35 of 69 (51%) cases of juvenile diarrhoea studied in eastern Malaysia were associated with rotavirus excretion; rotavirus associated diarrhoea occurred most commonly in the 6-24 month age group. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of genome ribonucleic acid showed that only 4 rotavirus electropherotypes could be detected. Of those, 2 predominated and 2 were detected only once each; one of these may have been a reassortment of the two predominant electropherotypes. Analysis of the clinical features of patients excreting rotavirus subgroup 1 or 2, determined by PAGE, demonstrated that rotavirus subgroup 1 was associated with more hypotonic dehydration and need for intravenous therapy: lethargy was significantly more common among those excreting rotavirus subgroup 2.
Studies on larval population densities and adult emergence rates of the Brugian filariasis vectors Mansonia bonneae Edwards and Ma. dives Schiner were conducted in freshwater swamp forest bordering the Sadong River, Serian District, Sarawak, East Malaysia, during 1984-85. Three species of aquatic host-plants in the Family Araceae were identified as supporting immature stages of the Ma. bonneae/dives complex. Proportions of positive plants were 4.7%, 6.5% and 3.4% with 6.4 +/- 2.6, 7.3 +/- 2.8 and 10.1 +/- 1.1 larvae per positive plant, respectively, for the plant species Homalomena cordata Schott, H. rostrata Griffiths and Hydrostemma motleyi (Hook. f.) Mabberley. These data indicate no significant preferences between the three types of host-plant. Detailed monitoring of the host-plant H. cordata revealed no significant monthly fluctuations in larval density per plant nor the proportion of positive plants. 11.6% of larvae were Ma. dives and 88.4% were Ma. bonneae. Mean daily yields of Ma. bonneae/dives adults per square metre of H. cordata vegetated water surface were 0.45 males plus 0.57 females during the wet season (December-February) compared with 0.2 males plus 0.31 females during the dry season (June-August). Thus output of adults per plant was approximately halved, and suitable breeding areas were further reduced, during the dry season. By extrapolation from these rates, a crude mean estimate for productivity of Ma. bonneae/dives females is 1.6 million per hectare per annum in swamp forest habitats vegetated with any of the host-plants studied.
The role of some adult flies (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) as carriers of helminth parasites of man was studied at four sites in Malaysia: a refuse dump, where no helminth-positive flies were detected, and in three peri-domestic situations where four species of flies carried up to three types of nematodes. The dominant fly species Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) carried eggs of the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides L., the pinworm Trichuris trichiura (L.) and hookworm on the adult external body surface and in the gut lumen, in association with Bukit Lanjan aborigines. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Sarcophaga spp. also had Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichurus trichiura eggs in their gut contents. Human helminths were not recovered from Lispe leucospila (Wiedemann), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) or the housefly Musca domestica L. In an urban slum area of Kuala Lumpur city, filariform larvae identified as the hookworm Necator americanus (Stiles) occurred in the intestines of the face-fly Musca sorbens Wiedemann (22 larvae per 100 flies) and of Chrysomya megacephala (4.5 larvae per 100 flies). This concentration of apparently infective N. americanus in M. sorbens, a fly which often breeds in faeces and browses on human skin, could have transmission potential.
180 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis and those who had undergone renal transplantation were questioned retrospectively. 14 patients had consumed excessive quantities of analgesics (greater than 1 kg) prior to the institution of long-term dialysis or transplantation. Sonographic examination done on these patients indicated that 7 had renal papillary necrosis (RPN). The sonographic features were renal papillary calcifications surrounding the central sinus in a complete or incomplete garland pattern. In 5 of these patients RPN is attibutable to the excessive consumption of paracetamol. We have earlier reported 10 cases of RPN due to excessive consumption of paracetamol. Thus 15 cases of RPN attributable to paracetamol consumption (1.0-15.3 kg over a period ranging from 3 to 23 years) have been documented. It is concluded that paracetamol may assume an increasingly important role in the causation of analgesic nephropathy (AN) and ESRD.
Neuroblastoma is the most common malignant tumour in infancy originating in about 70% of cases in the adrenal gland. Haemorrhage and necrosis is often seen in neuroblastoma but cyst formation is uncommon. Fistulous communication between an adrenal cystic neuroblastoma and the large bowel has never to our knowledge been reported before.
This paper reviews the literature on leptospirosis in Malaysia from its first description in 1928 until the present day. Most of the early reports were on investigations of leptospirosis in wildlife and man and up-to-date, thirty-seven leptospiral serovars from thirteen serogroups have been bacteriologically identified. The thirteen serogroups are: Australis, Autumnalis Bataviae, Canicola, Celledoni, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Javanica, Pomona, Pyrogenes, Sejroe and Tarassovi. Rats have been ascribed as the principal maintenance host of leptospires in Malaysia. However, serovars from the Pomona, Pyrogenes and Sejroe serogroups have yet to be isolated from rats. It is considered that the majority of leptospirosis cases in man were due to association of man with an environment where rats were plentiful. Recent investigations on domestic animals disclosed a high prevalence of infection in cattle and pigs and they were suspected as being the maintenance host for serovar hardjo and pomona respectively. There is ample scope for research in leptospirosis, particularly in the epidemiology and control of the disease in domestic animals. The strategy to control the infection in domestic animals and man in Malaysia is bound to be different from that of the temperate countries, basically due to the presence of a large number of leptospiral serovars in wildlife, further confounded by geographical and financial constraints.
Duffy phenotypes were determined for 314 Malaysian Orang Asli. The most common gene, Fya, was present in 313; there were no Duffy negative individuals. A previous study found evidence of Plasmodium vivax infection in 5 of 7 Orang Asli reported to be of the Duffy negative genotype. In this study, 5 of the 7 previously tested Orang Asli were retested in triplicate, and each of the 5 was found to be Duffy positive, having the Fya gene and a phenotype of Fy (a + b-).
Clinical studies were carried out on mild Indian sickle cell anaemia in Malaysia, and genetic and fertility studies were carried out on 101 families with and without sickle-cell haemoglobin (Hb S). The Indian sickle cell anaemia patients reached adulthood, and pregnancies and deliveries were uneventful without blood transfusion. There was no foetal wastage and the number of children produced was not significantly different from that in families without Hb S. 28 Indian patients hospitalized with Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection were also examined for their beta S genotype. P. falciparum malaria infection occurred much more frequently in individuals without Hb S than in Hb S carriers.
Forty-three patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were treated with 400 mg of ofloxacin. All had cultures negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae at follow-up within two weeks of treatment. Minimal side effects were reported. Ofloxacin appears to be satisfactory as a single-dose oral drug for the treatment of gonococcal urethritis, including those cases caused by penicillinase-producing strains of N. gonorrhoeae.
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom acetylcholinesterase has been partially purified by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography and DEAE Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. The enzyme has a mol. wt of 58,600. It was strongly inhibited by physostigmine salicylate and edrophonium chloride and exhibited substrate inhibition at high substrate concentration. The content of acetylcholinesterase in Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus venom was estimated to be much less than 0.3%.
The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.
A comparative study of five periodic human strains of Brugia malayi, originating from India, China, Korea, Malaysia and Indonesia, is given. This morphological analysis is based on males; the "standard" characters (oesophagus, papillae, spicules...) appear identical. On the contrary, the cuticular ornamentation of the posterior region--which is composed of the area rugosa and of a system of bosses and constitutes a secondary non-skid copulatory apparatus--differs following the geographical origin of the strain. A key is given, based on this character. 1(2) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, numerous cuticular bosses present on the right side of the body (fig. 2 and 8 B). 2(1) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, cuticular bosses absent or scarce on the right side of the body (fig. 8 D). 3(4) At 1,800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail (fig. 4), scarce and slightly projecting cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body contrasting with well projecting lateral cuticular bosses (fig. 9 E and F). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by a few stripes of tiny bosses linked transversally (fig. 9 A). 4(3) At 1,800-2,200 micron, numerous cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body (figs. 5, 6 and 7). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by the stripes of longitudinal rods (fig. 9C). 5(6) Oblong transversally stretched cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body, anteriorly to the area rugosa (fig. 5); big oblong bosses on the left side (fig. 9 B). Transversal wrinkles and stripes of rods absent on the dorsal side of the body. 6(5) Round cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body anteriorly to the area rugosa (figs. 6 and 7): no big oblong bosses on the left side. Transversal wrinkles or stripes of rods present on the dorsal side of the body (fig. 9 D). Nomenclaturally, such differences could be used in defining different taxa, but it could be useful to perform "blind determination" (material without labelling), to study conveniently the morphology of microfilariae (often an excellent indication for speciation in that group of Nematodes) and, evenly, to proceed to parallel studies on isoenzymes. However, whatever could be the taxonomical conclusion, the differences observed in Brugia malayi originating from different regions appear to the sufficient to consider the existence of four distinct diseases.
MeSH terms: Animals; Brugia/classification; Brugia/ultrastructure*; India; Indonesia; Korea; Malaysia; Male