DESIGN: Serum intact parathormone (PTH) concentrations were measured on samples taken before and during a variable-rate tri-sodium citrate infusion designed to 'clamp' the whole blood ionised calcium concentration 0.20 mmol L-1 below baseline for 120 min.
SUBJECTS: Six Malaysian patients aged 17-42 years with acute malaria, four of whom were restudied in convalescence, and 12 healthy controls aged 19-36 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whole-blood ionised calcium and serum intact PTH concentrations.
RESULTS: The mean (SD baseline ionised calcium was lower in the malaria patients than in controls (1.09 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.18 +/- 0.03 mmol L-1, respectively; P = 0.01) but PTH concentrations were similar (3.0 +/- 1.8 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.3 pmol L(-1); P = 0.33). Target whole-blood ionised calcium concentrations were achieved more rapidly in the controls than the patients (within 15 vs. 30 min) despite significantly more citrate being required in the patients (area under the citrate infusion-time curve 0.95 (0.25 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.09 mmol kg-1; P < 0.01). The ratio of the change in serum PTH to that in ionised calcium (delta PTH/ delta Ca2+), calculated to adjust for differences in initial rate of fall of ionised calcium, was similar during the first 5 min of the clamp (132 +/- 75 x 10(-6) vs. 131 +/- 43 x 10(-6) in patients and controls, respectively, P > 0.05), as were steady-state serum PTH levels during the second hour (7.0 +/- 2.2 pmol L-1 in each case). Convalescent patients had normal basal ionised calcium levels but the lowest serum intact PTH levels before and during the clamp, consistent with an increase in skeletal PTH sensitivity after treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a decreased ionised calcium 'set point' for basal PTH secretion but a normal PTH response to acute hypocalcaemia in malaria. Skeletal resistance may attenuate the effects of the PTH response but patients with malaria appear relatively resistant to the calcium chelating effects of citrated blood products.
OBJECTIVE: We have conducted a multicenter clinical skin testing study to document the safety and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a candidate Hevea brasiliensis nonammoniated latex (NAL) extract. These data are intended to support the licensing of this reagent for the diagnosis of latex allergy in high-risk populations.
METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four subjects (304 adults and 20 children) were classified by their clinical history as having latex allergy (LA group, 124 adults and 10 children) or having no latex allergy (NLA group, 180 adults and 10 children). All subjects provided blood samples and then received sequential puncture skin tests (PSTs) at 1, 100, or 1000 microg/mL protein with a bifurcated needle and NAL (Greer Laboratories) from Malaysian Hevea brasiliensis (clone 600) sap. A 2-stage glove provocation test was used to clarify latex allergy status of individuals with positive history/negative PST result and negative history/positive PST result mismatches.
RESULTS: Twenty-four subjects (15%) originally designated as having LA on the basis of their initial clinical history were reclassified to the NLA group on the basis of a negative glove provocation test result. Of the 134 subjects with LA, 54 (40%) were highly sensitive to latex, with a positive PST result at 1 microg/mL NAL. The Greer NAL reagent produced a positive PST rate (sensitivity) of 95% and 99% in subjects with LA at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL, respectively. The negative PST rate (specificity) in 190 subjects with a negative history with the NAL extract at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL, was 100% and 96%, respectively. Immediately after the PST, mild systemic reactions (mainly pruritus) were recorded in 16.1 % of the adults in the LA group and 4.4% of the adults in the NLA group. No reactions required treatment with epinephrine. Only mild delayed reactions were observed in 9.6% (LA group) and 2.8% (NLA group) of subjects 24 to 48 hours after PST. Mean wheal and erythema diameters measured in the 10 children in the LA group with spina bifida at 100 microg/mL and 1 mg/mL were similar to those observed in the adults in the LA group, suggesting that children are not at increased risk for systemic reactions compared with adults.
CONCLUSIONS: A suggestive clinical history is necessary but not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis of IgE-dependent latex allergy. These data support the safety and diagnostic efficacy of the Greer NAL, skin test reagent at 100 micro/mL and 1 mg/mL for confirmatory PSTs.