Browse publications by year: 2000

  1. Ho JJ, Subramaniam P, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG
    PMID: 11034747
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants (Greenough 1998, Bancalari 1992). Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant is the standard treatment for the condition. The major difficulty with IPPV is that it is invasive, resulting in airway and lung injury and contributing to the development of chronic lung disease.

    OBJECTIVES: In spontaneously breathing preterm infants with RDS, to determine if continuous distending pressure (CDP) reduces the need for IPPV and associated morbidity without adverse effects.

    SEARCH STRATEGY: The standard search strategy of the Neonatal Review group was used. This included searches of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE (1966-Jan. 2000), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, expert informants, journal hand searching mainly in the English language.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation of newborn infants with RDS were eligible. Interventions were continuous distending pressure including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube, or endotracheal tube, or continuous negative pressure (CNP) via a chamber enclosing the thorax and lower body, compared with standard care.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by each author, were used.

    MAIN RESULTS: CDP is associated with a lower rate of failed treatment (death or use of assisted ventilation), overall mortality, and mortality in infants with birthweights above 1500 g. The use of CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax.

    REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with RDS the application of CDP either as CPAP or CNP is associated with some benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. CDP is associated with an increased rate of pneumothorax. The applicability of these results to current practice is difficult to assess, given the outdated methods to administer CDP, low use of antenatal corticosteroids, non-availability of surfactant and the intensive care setting of the 1970s when these trials were done. Where resources are limited, such as in developing countries, CPAP for RDS may have a clinical role. Further research is required to determine the best mode of administration and its role in modern intensive care settings

    MeSH terms: Humans; Infant, Newborn; Infant, Premature*; Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation/adverse effects; Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods*; Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy*; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
  2. Habil MH
    DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-0769-9_9 ISBN: 978-1-4471-0769-9
    Citation: Habil MH. Tobacco smoking in Malaysia. In: Lu R, Mackay J, Niu S, Peto R (ed). Tobacco: The Growing Epidemic: Springer; 2000. p. 39-40.
    MeSH terms: Humans; Malaysia; Smoking
  3. Balmas V, Corda P, Marcello A, Bottalico A
    Plant Dis., 2000 Jul;84(7):807.
    PMID: 30832117 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.7.807B
    Fusarium nygamai Burgess & Trimboli was first described in 1986 in Australia (1) and subsequently reported in Africa, China, Malaysia, Thailand, Puerto Rico, and the United States. F. nygamai has been reported on sorghum, millet, bean, cotton, and in soil where it exists as a colonizer of living plants or plant debris. F. nygamai was also reported as a pathogen of the witch-weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. To our knowledge, no reports are available on its pathogenicity on crops of economic importance. In a survey of species of Fusarium causing seedling blight and foot rot of rice (Oryza sativa L.) carried out in Sardinia (Oristano, S. Lucia), F. nygamai was isolated in association with other Fusarium species-F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. compactum, and F. equiseti. Infected seedlings exhibited a reddish brown cortical discoloration, which was more intense in older plants. The identification of F. nygamai was based on monoconidial cultures grown on carnation leaf-piece agar (CLA) (2). The shape of macroconidia, the formation of microconidia in short chains and false heads, and the presence of chlamydospores were used as the criteria for identification. Two pathogenicity tests comparing one isolate of F. nygamai with one isolate of F. moniliforme were conducted on rice cv. Arborio sown in artificially infested soil in a greenhouse at 22 to 25°C. The inoculum was prepared by growing both Fusarium species in cornmeal sand (1:30 wt/wt) at 25°C for 3 weeks. This inoculum was added to soil at 20 g per 500 ml of soil. Pre- and post-emergence damping-off was assessed. Both F. nygamai and F. moniliforme reduced the emergence of seedlings (33 to 59% and 25 to 50%, respectively, compared to uninoculated control). After 25 days, the seedlings in infested soil exhibited a browning of the basal leaf sheaths, which progressed to a leaf and stem necrosis. Foot rot symptoms caused by F. nygamai and F. moniliforme were similar, but seedlings infected by F. nygamai exhibited a more intense browning on the stem base and a significant reduction of plant height at the end of the experiment. Either F. nygamai or F. moniliforme were consistently isolated from symptomatic tissue from the respective treatments. References: (1) L. W. Burgess and D. Trimboli. Mycologia 78:223,1986. (2) N. L. Fisher et al. Phytopathology 72:151,1982.
  4. Sudha N
    Family Physician, 2000;11:22-22.
    MeSH terms: New Zealand
  5. Singham KT
    Family Physician, 2000;11:14-15.
    MeSH terms: Dengue; Fever
  6. Singham KT
    Family Physician, 2000;11:20-20.
    MeSH terms: Family Practice; Ultrasonography; Letter
  7. Low BS
    Family Physician, 2000;11:20-20.
    MeSH terms: Homeopathy; Humans
  8. Kwa SK
    Family Physician, 2000;11:18.
    MeSH terms: Hepatitis B; Humans; Knowledge
  9. Kwa SK
    Family Physician, 2000;11(1):12-3.
    MeSH terms: Emergency Medicine; Physicians, Family; Contraception, Postcoital
  10. Doshi HH
    Family Physician, 2000;11:26-26.
    MeSH terms: Humans
  11. Ch'ng KS
    Family Physician, 2000;11:16-7.
    MeSH terms: Malaysia; Mentors; Physicians, Family; Primary Health Care
  12. Singh R, Cheah SC
    Plant Cell Rep., 2000 Jul;19(8):804-809.
    PMID: 30754873 DOI: 10.1007/s002999900179
    The technique of mRNA fingerprinting was used to isolate flower-specific cDNAs in the oil palm. Differences in the RNA populations between vegetative tissue (leaf) and inflorescences at various stages of flower development were examined using 18 primer combinations. A total of 16 flower-specific cDNAs were identified, of which 15 were successfully re-amplified. Reverse Northern analysis confirmed that 8 of the 15 cDNAs appeared to truly represent differentially expressed mRNAs in flowering tissues. Northern blot analysis subsequently showed that 5 of the clones are preferentially or exclusively expressed in the flowering tissues of oil palm.
    MeSH terms: Clone Cells; RNA; RNA, Messenger; Blotting, Northern; DNA, Complementary; Plant Leaves; Flowers; Inflorescence
  13. Rajakumar MK
    The Star, 2000.
    Republished in: Teng CL, Khoo EM, Ng CJ (editors). Family Medicine, Healthcare and Society: Essays by Dr M K Rajakumar. Kuala Lumpur: Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 2008: 147-152.
    Omitted in Second Edition (2019).
    MeSH terms: Malaysia
  14. Ravindran J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Aug;55 Suppl B:43-50.
    PMID: 11125521
    MeSH terms: Advertising as Topic; Drug Industry*; Ethics, Medical*; International Cooperation; Malaysia; Conflict of Interest; Health Care Sector*
  15. Malays J Nutr, 2000;6(1):-.
    This study aims to determine the relationship between calcium intake and lifestyle factors with bone health status among 56 postmenopausal women in the Evergreen Senior Citizens Club, Petaling Jaya. Purposive sampling technique was used for sample selection. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur proximal and lumbar L2-L4 was measured based on the Dual Energy X-ray Absorptionmetry (DEXA) technique at KVOTC Clinic, Subang Jaya. The interview sessions were conducted using a questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements. The results revealed that the average age of the respondents was 64.0 years old. The average weight and height of the respondents were 53.68 kg and 1.55 meters, respectively. Overall, the average body mass index (BMI) of the respondents was quite satisfactory (22.4 kg/m²) with only 17.9% of them categorized as overweight (>25 kg/m²). The average total calcium intake was 807.31 mg and about 76.2% was contributed by food intake. About 83.9% of the respondents met the recommended calcium intake according to the Malaysian RDA. The average BMD of the lumbar, neck, wards and trochanter was 9.983 ± 0.178 g/cm², 0.745 ± 0.126 g/cm², 0.604 ± 0.150 g/cm² and 0.674 ± 0.127 g/cm², respectively. About 32.1% of the respondents were categorized as osteoporotic at the femoral wards, while 10.7% respectively was at the lumbar L2-L4 and femoral neck. Half of the respondents had osteopenia at the femoral neck (53.6%) and wards (50.0%) and at the lumbar L2-L4 (53.6%). Pearson correlation test showed significant negative correlations between age and BMD in the neck (r = -0.419, p
    MeSH terms: Body Weight; Bone Diseases, Metabolic; Calcium, Dietary; Female; Femur; Femur Neck; Health Status; Humans; Life Style; Surveys and Questionnaires; X-Rays; Bone Density; Body Mass Index; Postmenopause; Overweight
  16. Abd. Hamid, D., Abdullah, J., Ariff, A.R., Muhamad, M., Madhavan, M.
    A 23 year-old Chinese woman presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure due to obstructive hydrocephalus as a sequel to a mass effect from cerebellar haemangioblastoma. She underwent removal of the right cerebella rhaemangioblastoma and ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. She also had bilateral retinal haemangioblastoma, left renal carcinoma, renal and pancreatic cysts without phaeochromocytoma. A left partial nephrectomy was performed for renal cell carcinoma followed by radiotherapy. She survived the initial episode only to
    succumb to another cerebellar haemorrhage 18 months later.
    MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Renal Cell; Female; Humans; Hydrocephalus; Intracranial Pressure; Kidney Neoplasms; Nephrectomy; Pancreatic Cyst; Pheochromocytoma; Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt; Hemangioblastoma; Intracranial Hypertension
  17. Hassan, J.A., Saadiah, S., Roslina, A.M, Atan, M., Noraidah Masir, Ganesapillai, T., et al.
    We describe a patient with liver cirrhosis who presented with erosive oral and cutaneous lichen planus (LP) and incidentally was found simultaneously to have thymoma and hepatoma. We support the notion forwarded earlier that LP and chronic liver disease is more than a mere coincidence and that there is a noncoincidental association between LP and thymoma. We believe this is also the first reported case in the English Literature of coexistence of the three condition LP, thymoma and hepatoma complicating liver disease.
    MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular; Humans; Lichen Planus; Liver Cirrhosis; Liver Neoplasms; Thymoma
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