Browse publications by year: 2012

  1. Ooi CP, Yassin Z, Hamid TA
    PMID: 22895968 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007845.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) is not only a nutritious vegetable but it is also used in traditional medical practices to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental studies with animals and humans suggested that the vegetable has a possible role in glycaemic control.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mormodica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    SEARCH METHODS: Several electronic databases were searched, among these were The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE and LILACS (all up to February 2012), combined with handsearches. No language restriction was used.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared momordica charantia with placebo or a control intervention, with or without pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of the trials was evaluated using the parameters of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, completeness of outcome data, selective reporting and other potential sources of bias. A meta-analysis was not performed given the quality of data and the variability of preparations of momordica charantia used in the interventions (no similar preparation was tested twice).

    MAIN RESULTS: Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the effects of momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further studies are therefore required to address the issues of standardization and the quality control of preparations. For medical nutritional therapy, further observational trials evaluating the effects of momordica charantia are needed before RCTs are established to guide any recommendations in clinical practice.

    MeSH terms: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy*; Glyburide/therapeutic use; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use*; Phytotherapy/methods*; Metformin/therapeutic use; Plant Extracts/therapeutic use*; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Momordica charantia/chemistry*
  2. Aziz Z, Flemming K
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012 Dec 12;12:CD002930.
    PMID: 23235593 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002930.pub5
    BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are defined as areas "of localized damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, friction and/or the combination of these". Electromagnetic therapy (EMT), in which electrodes produce an electromagnetic field across the wound, may improve healing of chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of EMT on the healing of pressure ulcers.

    SEARCH METHODS: For this update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 12 July 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 7); Ovid MEDLINE (2010 to July Week 1 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 11, 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2010 to 2012 Week 27); and EBSCO CINAHL (2010 to 6 July 2012).

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing EMT with sham EMT or other (standard) treatment.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For this update two review authors independently scrutinised the results of the search to identify relevant RCTs and obtained full reports of potentially eligible studies. In previous versions of the review we made attempts to obtain missing data by contacting study authors. A second review author checked data extraction and disagreements were resolved after discussion between review authors.

    MAIN RESULTS: We identified no new trials for this update.Two randomised controlled trials (RCTs), involving 60 participants, at unclear risk of bias were included in the original review. Both trials compared the use of EMT with sham EMT, although one of the trials included a third arm in which only standard therapy was applied. Neither study found a statistically significant difference in complete healing in people treated with EMT compared with those in the control group. In one trial that assessed percentage reduction in wound surface area, the difference between the two groups was reported to be statistically significant in favour of EMT. However, this result should be interpreted with caution as this is a small study and this finding may be due to chance. Additionally, the outcome, percentage reduction in wound area, is less clinically meaningful than complete healing.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results provide no strong evidence of benefit in using EMT to treat pressure ulcers. However, the possibility of a beneficial or harmful effect cannot be ruled out because there were only two included trials, both with methodological limitations and small numbers of participants. Further research is recommended.

    MeSH terms: Pressure Ulcer/therapy*; Female; Humans; Male; Wound Healing; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Magnetic Field Therapy/methods*
  3. Citation: The fourth report of the National Eye Database 2010. Goh PP, Salowi MA, editors. Kuala Lumpur: Clinical Research Centre; 2012
    MeSH terms: Eye Diseases; Humans; Malaysia; Registries
  4. MeSH terms: Child; Humans; Malaysia; Otitis Media; Guideline
  5. ISBN: 978-967-0339-27-0
    MeSH terms: Hearing Aids; Malaysia; Guideline; Persons With Hearing Impairments; Hearing Loss
  6. MeSH terms: Counseling; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Malaysia; Guideline
  7. MeSH terms: Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Atrial Fibrillation; Cardiology; Humans; Malaysia; Guideline
  8. MeSH terms: Child; Dental Caries; Humans; Malaysia; Guideline
  9. Mohammed A, Maslina Darus
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1657-1661.
    In this article, we studied the generalised Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function. We defined a new operator and introduced a new class of function. Here, some interesting properties and sufficient conditions for subordination were also studied.
    MeSH terms: Research
  10. Borza M, Rambely A, Saraj M
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1651-1656.
    In this paper, two approaches were introduced to obtain Stackelberg solutions for two-level linear fractional programming problems with interval coefficients in the objective functions. The approaches were based on the Kth best method and the method for solving linear fractional programming problems with interval coefficients in the objective function. In the first approach, linear fractional programming with interval coefficients in the objective function and linear programming were utilized to obtain Stackelberg solution, but in the second approach only linear programming is used. Since a linear fractional programming with interval coefficients can be equivalently transformed into a linear programming, therefore both of approaches have same results. Numerical examples demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the methods.
    MeSH terms: Paper; Problem Solving; Programming, Linear; Neural Networks (Computer)
  11. Haliza Abd. Rahman, Arifah Bahar, Norhayati Rosli, Madihah Md. Salleh
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1635-1642.
    Non-parametric modeling is a method which relies heavily on data and motivated by the smoothness properties in estimating a function which involves spline and non-spline approaches. Spline approach consists of regression spline and smoothing spline. Regression spline with Bayesian approach is considered in the first step of a two-step method in estimating the structural parameters for stochastic differential equation (SDE). The selection of knot and order of spline can be done heuristically based on the scatter plot. To overcome the subjective and tedious process of selecting the optimal knot and order of spline, an algorithm was proposed. A single optimal knot is selected out of all the points with exception of the first and the last data which gives the least value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV) for each order of spline. The use is illustrated using observed data of opening share prices of Petronas Gas Bhd. The results showed that the Mean Square Errors (MSE) for stochastic model with parameters estimated using optimal knot for 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 runs of Brownian motions are smaller than the SDE models with estimated parameters using knot selected heuristically. This verified the viability of the two-step method in the estimation of the drift and diffusion parameters of SDE with an improvement of a single knot selection.
    MeSH terms: Heuristics; Algorithms; Bayes Theorem; Diffusion; Motion
  12. Norfarah Nadia Ismail, Joh SH, Raja Hassanul Musa Raja Ahmad
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1621-1627.
    A beamformer in seismology is a signal receptor with a series of geophones, in which a beam of elastic waves is formed like a light beam by adjusting signal delays at individual geophones. Recently, beamforming has extended its applications to surface-wave measurement. In surface-wave measurement, beamforming provides unique advantages over other surface-wave methods, such as full automation in data analysis as well as directional signal reception to minimize scattered noise and multiple reflections in signals. However, certain defects depreciate the value of beamforming in terms of its practicality and feasibility. These include the requirement of having many receivers and the loss of small wavelength data due to spatial aliasing. It leads to insensitivity in identification of lateral variability, which creates the problem of having to smooth out geologic features and complexities like folding, faults and fractures. In this paper, advances in the refinement of beamforming were described on two counts: improvement of sensitivity in identification of lateral variability and recovery of aliased wave numbers, which enables evaluation of shallow material. On the passage to refinement, synthetic waveforms for typical layering systems were generated to figure out characteristics of beamformer velocities in comparison with SASW velocities and theoretical normal-mode velocities.
    MeSH terms: Acoustics; Automation; Geology; Noise; Sound
  13. Thanapackiam P, Khairulmaini O, Fauza A
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1613-1620.
    In the last decade slope failure intensity and frequency has increased. This article investigates slope failure distribution and trend change and the tendency of spatial direction of slope failures in the Klang Valley Region (KVR) of Malaysia. The change in land cover especially for urbanization and population pressure has notably influenced spatial and temporal variations in slope failure occurrences in the KVR. This study recognized two significant impacts of slope failures: increase in intensity and frequency of slope failures from 1991 to November 2011 and spatial direction of slope failures in the KVR. Both of these effects create severe stresses on the population of the KVR. The study observed that the temporal and spatial advances of slope failures would continue to increase in intensity and frequency in the not so distant future as the environment would become more stressful as a result of urbanization. The knowledge generated from the work would be valuable to all stakeholders affected by slope failures in the KVR and lead the way towards achieving a more sustainable slope development planning in the future.
    MeSH terms: Conservation of Natural Resources; Malaysia; Population Dynamics; Social Planning; Urbanization; Knowledge
  14. Aminah Ishak, Jaharah A. Ghani, Che Hassan Che Haron
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1605-1612.
    Kaedah unsur terhingga (FEM) berdasarkan pemodelan dan simulasi proses pemotongan telah menarik minat ramai penyelidik secara berterusan untuk mengkaji lebih mendalam terutamanya mengenai penjanaan daya dan suhu di dalam zon pemotongan yang sebelum ini tegasan tidak boleh diukur secara langsung. Dalam kajian ini, simulasi proses pemotongan ortogon besi tuang mulur (FCD 500) menggunakan mata pemotong karbida pada pelbagai keadaan angin sejuk telah dikaji. Perisian DEFORM digunakan untuk menjalankan simulasi proses pemotongan ortogon dengan laju pemotongan (100-300 m/min), kadar suapan (0.15-0.35 mm/pus), kedalaman pemotongan (0.2-0.8 mm) dan suhu angin sejuk (2o -25oC). Mata pemotong mempunyai jejari hidung mata pemotong 0.4 mm, sudut sadak, α =5o dan sudut kelegaan, β = 7o. Reka bentuk uji kaji adalah menggunakan kaedah Taguchi dalam tatasusunan ortogon L9, nisbah S/N dan analisis Pareto ANOVA digunakan untuk menganalisis kesan parameter pemotongan terhadap hasil pemesinan iaitu daya, tegasan dan suhu semasa pemesinan. Keputusan menunjukkan kadar suapan memberikan pengaruh yang paling tinggi (96.12%) terhadap daya pemotongan. Tegasan pemotongan paling dipengaruhi oleh kadar suapan iaitu 78.87%. Kajian ini telah membuktikan, banyak masa, kos dan tenaga dapat dijimatkan dalam mengkaji kebolehmesinan sesuatu bahan secara simulasi berbanding dengan kaedah eksperimen, di samping keputusan yang tepat diperoleh.
  15. Wu J, Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff, Chen J, Liu Y, Mohd. Rosli Hainin, Airey GD
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1595-1603.
    In order to cope with the ever-increasing traffic loading and to minimise the cost of road construction and maintenance, several road trials of High Modulus Base (HMB) materials containing a 15 penetration bitumen (known as HMB15) have been carried out in the UK since 1990s. It has been showed that, although HMB15 behaved in a similar way to conventional Dense Bitumen Macadam with a cost saving of approximately 25%, its long-term durability (aging and moisture damage) is still a major concern of researchers as considerable deteriorations have been commonly observed during the ongoing investigations on cored samples from the sites (either with or without traffic loading). The aim of this paper was to quantitatively show the relationship between aging properties of HMB15 and its binder film thickness (binder content), so that an optimum binder content could be determined. In order to achieve this, 5 groups of cylindrical HMB15 specimens with different binder contents (3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5%) were fabricated and subjected to SHRP long-term oven aging test (at 85oC for 5 days), their mechanical properties both before and after aging simulation were tested using Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM) tests. In addition, binders were recovered at different aging stages and their rheological characteristics were investigated with Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) tests. Based on these, aging indices of different groups were calculated and their mathematical relationship with binder film thicknesses was regressed. The results show that the aging properties of HMB15 mixtures are significantly affected by their binder film thicknesses. However, regression analysis between aging indices and binder film thicknesses indicates that, as the binder film becomes thicker than 9.5 μm, the change of aging indices with film thicknesses becomes minor and therefore, a film thickness of approximately 9.5 μm was recommended for HMB15 mixtures.
  16. Nor Zawanah Ab. Hamid, Jamaliah Md Jahim, Nurina Anuar, Sahaid Khalid
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1587-1593.
    Hidrogen merupakan sumber tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui dan efektif. Hidrogen boleh dihasilkan melalui fotofermentasi oleh bakteria ungu tanpa sulfur seperti Rhodobacter sphaeroides disebabkan kebolehan yang tinggi dalam menghasilkan hidrogen dalam keadaan anaerobik. Dalam kajian ini, bakteria dieram di dalam botol serum 100 mL dalam keadaan anaerobik. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk memaksimumkan penghasilan hidrogen oleh Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 yang melibatkan kajian mengenai inokulum dalam keadaan aerobik dan anaerobik, kesan pH awal dan kesan keamatan cahaya terhadap penghasilan hidrogen. Daripada uji kaji yang dilakukan, didapati bahawa inokulum yang dieram pada keadaan anaerobik menghasilkan hidrogen tertinggi iaitu 220.5 mL/g substrat. pH 7 adalah pH yang paling sesuai digunakan untuk penghasilan hidrogen. Keamatan cahaya 5,000 lux adalah nilai optimum yang dapat memberikan penghasilan hidrogen tertinggi iaitu 80.21 mL hidrogen dengan hasil hidrogen 401.04 mL/g substrat. Penghasilan hidrogen didapati semakin menurun pada keamatan cahaya yang lebih tinggi daripada 5,000 lux.
    MeSH terms: Color; Pallor; Rhodobacter sphaeroides; Sulfur
  17. Siti Munirah Ibrahim, Khairiah Badri, Osman Hassan
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1579-1585.
    Lignocellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) has been identified as another source for conversion into renewable energy or value added products. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were extracted from EFB via a new treatment method using aqueous glycerol as a potential delignification agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment time and EFB to solvent ratio on the analytical compositions of EFB with or without further treatment with aqueous glycerol. The cooking time was varied at 3, 5 and 7 h with temperature fixed at 85°C. Three types of EFB were used; untreated fiber (UT-EFB), pretreated fiber with 5% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution (N-EFB) and pretreated fiber with 5% (w/v) acetic acid solution (A-EFB). The analyses carried out were determination of extractives content, Klason Lignin, α-cellulose, hemicelluloses, holocellulose and ash content based on dry weight of the EFB. An increase in the glycerolysis time resulted in reduced content of Klason lignin and extractives but high percentages of holocellulose and α-cellulose for all EFB samples. Treatment of EFB with alkaline solution prior to glycerolysis resulted in reduction in cellulose content compared with holocellulose.
  18. Rohaiza S, Yaacob W, Din L, Nazlina I
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1571-1577.
    A phytochemical investigation on the acetone extract of the stem bark of Shorea faguetiana was conducted. The isolation of the chemical compounds was carried out by different chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, NMR and MS, and also by comparison with the literature. Five oligostilbenes were isolated and identified as (-)-ε-viniferin, (-)-α-viniferin, (-)-laevifonol, (-)-ampelopsin E and (-)-hopeaphenol.
  19. Salmah Mohamed, Mohd Basri Wahid, Idris Abd. Ghani
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1543-1548.
    The effects of various concentrations of honey and sucrose on the longevity and fecundity of Apanteles metesae (Nixon), an endoparasitoid of oil palm bagworm, Metisa plana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) were studied in the laboratory. Our results showed that there were a significant difference (p<0.05) in the longevity of A. metesae fed on various concentrations of honey solutions. Longevity of A. metesae was significantly longer when fed on 50% honey than on pure honey. Nonetheless, longevity of A. metesae females when fed on 50% honey was relatively longer than other honey concentrations. The parasitoid lived significantly longer when fed on 20% sucrose than fed on 50% sucrose and distilled water. However, the parasitoid fed on 50% honey had a longevity that was statistically similar to 20% sucrose and 50% sucrose. Fecundity of A. metesae differed significantly (p<0.05) when fed on 50% honey, 20% sucrose and 50% sucrose. The highest and lowest fecundity was when the parasitoids fed on 20% sucrose and distilled water, respectively. Overall, the result showed that 20% sucrose was a more suitable diet for A. metesae females as compared with other diets.
    MeSH terms: Animals; Diet; Female; Fertility; Honey; Hymenoptera; Lepidoptera; Longevity; Sucrose
  20. Vejanan V, Jalifah Latip, Lee PC, Noor Embi, Hasidah Mohd Sidek
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1535-1542.
    Gynura procumbens, locally known in Malaysia as Sambung Nyawa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. G. procumbens have been traditionally used by the local and indigenous populations to treat an array of ailments ranging from skin conditions and fever to kidney disease, inflammation and diabetes. In the present investigation, aqueous and ethanol extracts of G. procumbens were evaluated for anti-plasmodial activities in vitro and in vivo. Survival of two chloroquine-sensitive strains of malarial parasites; rodent Plasmodium berghei NK65 and human Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 was determined following incubations in vitro with extracts. Based on parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay, both extracts were shown to inhibit parasite proliferation to varying degrees. The aqueous extract was more potent than the ethanol extract at suppressing growth of both parasites in vitro; each displaying IC50 values of 12.40 ± 6.02 and 14.38 ± 7.53 μg/mL towards P. berghei NK65; and 25.69 ± 4.34 and 42.23 ± 7.19 μg/mL towards P. falciparum 3D7, respectively. The aqueous extract was found to be selective for P. falciparum (Selectivity Index 64.30). Four-day suppressive tests in ICR mice showed dose-dependent chemo-suppressive activities of both plant extracts tested towards P. berghei NK65. Daily intra-peritoneal injections of the aqueous extract of G. procumbens at 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg for four consecutive days showed chemo-suppression of 50.42 ± 3.17, 65.95 ± 5.48 and 81.92 ± 3.07%, respectively. At the same dosages, the ethanol plant extract resulted in 44.97 ± 3.44, 55.21 ± 3.87 and 64.44 ± 4.05% chemo-suppression respectively. At 250 mg/kg/day, only the aqueous plant extract gave >90% chemo-suppression (93.06 ± 5.46%). Treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with extracts improved the median survival time compared to non-treated infected mice. This represents the first report showing anti-plasmodial activity of G. procumbens.
External Links