METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed of published studies from 1950 to 2010 using keyword searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, and BIOSIS Previews.
RESULTS: In all, 477 abstracts were identified and data extracted from 93 studies, comprising 17,976 IBD patients and 27,350 age- and sex-matched controls. Major nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 variants in Western Crohn's disease (CD) patients were not associated with CD in Han Chinese, Japanese, South Korean, Indian, and Malaysian populations. New NOD2 mutations were, however, associated with CD in Malaysians (JW1), Han Chinese, and Indians (P268S). Autophagy-related protein 16-linked 1 (ATG16L1) was not associated with CD in East Asians (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.13). Interleukin (IL)-23R was associated with CD in South Koreans (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.16-2.82) and a single nucleotide polymorphism in IL-23R (Gly149Arg) was protective of CD in Han Chinese (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.15-0.60). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene-15 (SF15) polymorphisms were associated with CD (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.86-3.86), while TNF-308 polymorphisms (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.15-2.9), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.22-6.22) and MICA allele (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.89-3.07) were associated with ulcerative colitis in Asians.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic mutations of IBD in Asians differ from Caucasians. New mutations and susceptibility genes identified in Asian IBD patients provide an opportunity to explore new disease-associated mechanisms in this population of rising incidence.
METHODS: A total of 222 outpatients with schizophrenia receiving treatment at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre completed the SQLS-R4 in either the Malay or the English language. A generic self-report health-related quality-of-life measure-the EuroQoL group EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire-and a measure of symptom severity-the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale-were also administered to assess validity.
RESULTS: Good internal consistency reliability was found for both the psychosocial and vitality domains (Cronbach's α = 0.95 and 0.85, respectively). Most items were also significantly correlated with their own scale score (rs ranging from 0.29 to 0.74). There was a moderate correlation between the SQLS-R4 "vitality" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "usual activities" domain (rs = 0.44) and a large correlation between the SQLS-R4 "psychosocial" domain and the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire "anxiety/depression" domain (rs = 0.44-0.57). Most of the symptom dimensions of the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were also moderately correlated with the SQLS-R4 subscale scores.
CONCLUSIONS: The SQLS-R4 is a valid and reliable health-related quality-of-life instrument for use in minimally ill patients with schizophrenia in Malaysia, but some of the items may be redundant and irrelevant. Validation of SQLS-R4 in different types of patients and various levels of illness severity is required to further verify its application.