Browse publications by year: 2012

  1. Park JE, Chiang CE, Munawar M, Pham GK, Sukonthasarn A, Aquino AR, et al.
    Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2012 Aug;19(4):781-94.
    PMID: 21450606 DOI: 10.1177/1741826710397100
    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hypercholesterolaemia in Asia is rarely evaluated on a large scale, and data on treatment outcome are scarce. The Pan-Asian CEPHEUS study aimed to assess low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment among patients on lipid-lowering therapy.
    METHODS: This survey was conducted in eight Asian countries. Hypercholesterolaemic patients aged ≥18 years who had been on lipid-lowering treatment for ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited, and lipid concentrations were measured. Demographic and other clinically relevant information were collected, and the cardiovascular risk of each patient was determined. Definitions and criteria set by the updated 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines were applied.
    RESULTS: In this survey, 501 physicians enrolled 8064 patients, of whom 7281 were included in the final analysis. The mean age was 61.0 years, 44.4% were female, and 85.1% were on statin monotherapy. LDL-C goal attainment was reported in 49.1% of patients overall, including 51.2% of primary and 48.7% of secondary prevention patients, and 36.6% of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. The LDL-C goal was attained in 75.4% of moderate risk, 55.4% of high risk, and only 34.9% of very high-risk patients. Goal attainment was directly related to age and inversely related to cardiovascular risk and baseline LDL-C.
    CONCLUSION: A large proportion of Asian hypercholesterolaemic patients on lipid-lowering drugs are not at recommended LDL-C levels and remain at risk for cardiovascular disease. Given the proven efficacy of lipid-lowering drugs in the reduction of LDL-C, there is room for further optimization of treatments to maximize benefits and improve outcomes.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use*; Asia/epidemiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/ethnology; Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control; Cross-Sectional Studies; Drug Utilization; Female; Hong Kong; Humans; Hypercholesterolemia/blood; Hypercholesterolemia/drug therapy*; Hypercholesterolemia/ethnology; Indonesia; Korea; Cholesterol, LDL/blood*; Malaysia; Male; Middle Aged; Philippines; Practice Patterns, Physicians'; Drug Prescriptions; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Taiwan; Thailand; Time Factors; Vietnam; Biomarkers/blood; Down-Regulation; Multivariate Analysis; Linear Models; Logistic Models; Odds Ratio; Treatment Outcome; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Risk Assessment; Health Care Surveys; Guideline Adherence; Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  2. Smith K
    Biomed Imaging Interv J, 2012 Jan;8(1):e2.
    PMID: 22970058 DOI: 10.2349/biij.8.1.e2
    A 69 year-old man presented with an incidental finding on radiograph of a lesion in the left upper lobe. CT indicated it was likely to be a neoplasm and CT-guided FNA was requested. The lesion was located medial to the scapula so a creative approach was utilised to gain access to the lesion. This study discusses the approach used and why it reduced patient risk compared to a more conventional procedure. The sample was positive for neoplasm and there were no complications arising from the procedure.
    MeSH terms: Aged; Humans; Lung; Male; Neoplasms; Radiography; Risk; Scapula; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Incidental Findings
  3. Liao X, Fu Y, Zhang S, Duan YP
    Plant Dis., 2012 Feb;96(2):288.
    PMID: 30731824 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-08-11-0639
    Indian spinach (Basella rubra L.) is a red stem species of Basella that is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental and the aerial parts are also consumed as a vegetable. In May of 2011, symptoms of damping-off were observed on approximately 10% of the plants at the stem base around the soil line of seedlings in a greenhouse in Homestead, FL. Lesions were initially water soaked, grayish to dark brown, irregular in shape, and sunken in appearance on large plants, causing the infected seedlings to collapse and eventually die. Symptomatic stem tissue was surface sterilized with 0.6% sodium hypochlorite, rinsed in sterile distilled water, air dried, and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA). Plates were incubated at 25°C in darkness for 3 to 5 days. A fungus was isolated in all six isolations from symptomatic tissues on PDA. Fungal colonies on PDA were light gray to brown with abundant growth of mycelia, and the hyphae tended to branch at right angles when examined under a microscope. A septum was always present in the branch of hyphae near the originating point and a slight constriction at the branch was observed. Neither conidia nor conidiophores were found from the cultures on PDA. The characteristics of hyphae, especially the right angle branching of mycelia, indicate close similarity to those of Rhizoctonia solani (2,3). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified with the primers ITS1/ITS4 and sequenced (GenBank Accession No. JN545836). Subsequent database searches by the BLASTN program indicated that the resulting sequence had a 100% identity over 472 bp with the corresponding gene sequence of R. solani anastomosis group (AG) 4 (GenBank Accession No. JF701752.1), a fungal pathogen reported to cause damping-off on many crops. Pathogenicity was confirmed through inoculation of healthy India spinach plants with the hyphae of isolates. Four 4-week-old plants were inoculated with the isolates by placing a 5-mm PDA plug of mycelia at the stem base and covering with a thin layer of the soil. Another four plants treated with sterile PDA served as a control. After inoculation, the plants were covered with plastic bags for 24 h and maintained in a greenhouse with ambient conditions. Four days after inoculation, water-soaked, brown lesions, identical to the symptoms described above, were observed on the stem base of all inoculated plants, whereas no symptoms developed on the control plants. The fungus was isolated from affected stem samples, and the identity was confirmed by microscopic appearance of the hyphae and sequencing the ITS1/ITS4 intergenic spacer region, fulfilling Koch's postulates. This pathogenicity test was conducted twice. R. solani has been reported to cause damping-off of B. rubra in Ghana (1) and Malaysia (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of damping-off caused by R. solani AG-4 on Indian spinach in Florida and the United States. With the increased interest in producing Asian vegetables for food and ornamental purposes, the occurrence of damping-off on Indian spinach needs to be taken into account when designing programs for disease management in Florida. References: (1) H. A. Dade. XXIX. Bull. Misc. Inform. 6:205, 1940. (2) J. R. Parmeter et al. Phytopathology 57:218, 1967. (3) B. Sneh et al. Identification of Rhizoctonia species. The American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, MN, 1991. (4) T. H. Williams and P. S. W. Liu. Phytopathol. Pap. 19:1, 1976.
  4. Nasehi A, Kadir JB, Abidin MAZ, Wong MY, Mahmodi F
    Plant Dis., 2012 Aug;96(8):1226.
    PMID: 30727066 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0223-PDN
    In June 2011, tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) in major growing areas of the Cameron Highlands and the Johor state in Malaysia were affected by a leaf spot disease. Disease incidence exceeded 80% in some severely infected regions. Symptoms on 50 observed plants initially appeared on leaves as small, brownish black specks, which later became grayish brown, angular lesions surrounded by a yellow border. As the lesions matured, the affected leaves dried up and became brittle and later developed cracks in the center of the lesions. A survey was performed in these growing areas and 27 isolates of the pathogen were isolated from the tomato leaves on potato carrot agar (PCA). The isolates were purified by the single spore technique and were transferred onto PCA and V8 agar media for conidiophore and conidia production under alternating light (8 hours per day) and darkness (16 hours per day) (4). Colonies on PCA and V8 agar exhibited grey mycelium and numerous conidia were formed at the terminal end of conidiophores. The conidiophores were up to 240 μm long. Conidia were oblong with 2 to 11 transverse and 1 to 6 longitudinal septa and were 24 to 69.6 μm long × 9.6 to 14.4 μm wide. The pathogen was identified as Stemphylium solani on the basis of morphological criteria (2). In addition, DNA was extracted and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) was amplified by universal primers ITS5 and ITS4 (1). The PCR product was purified by the commercial PCR purification kit and the purified PCR product sequenced. The resulting sequences were 100% identical to published S. solani sequences (GenBank Accestion Nos. AF203451 and HQ840713). The amplified ITS region was deposited with NCBI GenBank under Accession No. JQ657726. A representative isolate of the pathogen was inoculated on detached 45-day-old tomato leaves of Malaysian cultivar 152177-A for pathogenicity testing. One wounded and two nonwounded leaflets per leaf were used in this experiment. The leaves were wounded by applying pressure to leaf blades with the serrated edge of a forceps. A 20-μl drop of conidial suspension containing 105 conidia/ml was used to inoculate these leaves (3). The inoculated leaves were placed on moist filter paper in petri dishes and incubated for 48 h at 25°C. Control leaves were inoculated with sterilized distilled water. After 7 days, typical symptoms for S. solani similar to those observed in the farmers' fields developed on both wounded and nonwounded inoculated leaves, but not on noninoculated controls, and S. solani was consistently reisolated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. solani causing gray leaf spot of tomato in Malaysia. References: (1) M. P. S. Camara et al. Mycologia 94:660, 2002. (2) B. S. Kim et al. Plant Pathol. J. 15:348, 1999. (3) B. M. Pryor and T. J. Michailides. Phytopathology 92:406, 2002. (4) E. G. Simmons. CBS Biodiversity Series 6:775, 2007.
  5. Nasehi A, Kadir JB, Abidin MAZ, Wong MY, Mahmodi F
    Plant Dis., 2012 Aug;96(8):1226.
    PMID: 30727083 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0237-PDN
    A leaf spot on eggplant (Solanum melongena) was observed in major eggplant growing regions in Malaysia, including the Cameron Highlands and Johor State, during 2011. Disease incidence averaged approximately 30% in severely infected regions in about 150 ha of eggplant fields and greenhouses examined. Early symptoms consisted of small, circular, brown, necrotic spots uniformly distributed on leaves. The spots gradually enlarged and developed concentric rings. Eventually, the spots coalesced and caused extensive leaf senescence. A fungus was recovered consistently by plating surface-sterilized (1% NaOCl) sections of symptomatic leaf tissue onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). For conidial production, the fungus was grown on potato carrot agar (PCA) and V8 agar media under a 16-h/8-h dark/light photoperiod at 25°C (4). Fungal colonies were a dark olive color with loose, cottony mycelium. Simple conidiophores were ≤120 μm long and produced numerous conidia in long chains. Conidia averaged 20.0 × 7.5 μm and contained two to five transverse septa and the occasional longitudinal septum. Twelve isolates of the fungus were identified as Alternaria tenuissima on the basis of morphological characterization (4). Confirmation of the species identification was obtained by molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA amplified from DNA extracted from a representative isolate using universal primers ITS4 and ITS5 (2). The 558 bp DNA band amplified was sent for direct sequencing. The sequence (GenBank Accession No. JQ736021) was subjected to BLAST analysis (1) and was 99% identical to published ITS rDNA sequences of isolates of A. tenuissima (GenBank Accession Nos. DQ323692 and AY154712). Pathogenicity tests were performed by inoculating four detached leaves from 45-day-old plants of the eggplant cv. 125066x with 20 μl drops (three drops/leaf) of a conidial suspension containing 105 conidia/ml in sterile distilled water. Four control leaves were inoculated with sterile water. Leaves inoculated with the fungus and those treated with sterile water were incubated in chambers at 25°C and 95% RH with a 12-h photoperiod/day (2). Leaf spot symptoms typical of those caused by A. tenuissima developed on leaves inoculated with the fungus 7 days after inoculation, and the fungus was consistently reisolated from these leaves. The control leaves remained asymptomatic and the pathogen was not reisolated from the leaves. The pathogenicity test was repeated with similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of A. tenuissima causing a leaf spot on eggplant in Malaysia. A. tenuissima has been reported to cause leaf spot and fruit rot on eggplant in India (3). References: (1) S. F. Altschul et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389, 1997. (2) B. M. Pryor and T. J. Michailides. Phytopathology 92:406, 2002. (3) P. Raja et al. New Disease Rep. 12:31, 2005. (4) E. G. Simmons. Page 1 in: Alternaria Biology, Plant Diseases and Metabolites. J. Chelchowski and A. Visconti, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992.
  6. Nasehi A, Kadir JB, Abidin MAZ, Wong MY, Ashtiani FA
    Plant Dis., 2012 Aug;96(8):1227.
    PMID: 30727084 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0262-PDN
    Symptoms of gray leaf spot were first observed in June 2011 on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants cultivated in the Cameron Highlands and Johor State, the two main regions of pepper production in Malaysia (about 1,000 ha). Disease incidence exceeded 70% in severely infected fields and greenhouses. Symptoms initially appeared as tiny (average 1.3 mm in diameter), round, orange-brown spots on the leaves, with the center of each spot turning gray to white as the disease developed, and the margin of each spot remaining dark brown. A fungus was isolated consistently from the lesions using sections of symptomatic leaf tissue surface-sterilized in 1% NaOCl for 2 min, rinsed in sterile water, dried, and plated onto PDA and V8 agar media (3). After 7 days, the fungal colonies were gray, dematiaceous conidia had formed at the end of long conidiophores (19.2 to 33.6 × 12.0 to 21.6 μm), and the conidia typically had two to six transverse and one to four longitudinal septa. Fifteen isolates were identified as Stemphylium solani on the basis of morphological criteria described by Kim et al. (3). The universal primers ITS5 and ITS4 were used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8, and ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of a representative isolate (2). A 570 bp fragment was amplified, purified, sequenced, and identified as S. solani using a BLAST search with 100% identity to the published ITS sequence of an S. solani isolate in GenBank (1). The sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. JQ736024). Pathogenicity of the fungal isolate was tested by inoculating healthy pepper leaves of cv. 152177-A. A 20-μl drop of conidial suspension (105 spores/ml) was used to inoculate each of four detached, 45-day-old pepper leaves placed on moist filter papers in petri dishes (4). Four control leaves were inoculated similarly with sterilized, distilled water. The leaves were incubated at 25°C at 95% relative humidity for 7 days. Gray leaf spot symptoms similar to those observed on the original pepper plants began to develop on leaves inoculated with the fungus after 3 days, and S. solani was consistently reisolated from the leaves. Control leaves did not develop symptoms and the fungus was not reisolated from these leaves. Pathogenicity testing was repeated with the same results. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. solani causing gray leaf spot on pepper in Malaysia. References: (1) S. F. Altschul et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389, 1997. (2) M. P. S. Camara et al. Mycologia 94:660, 2002. (3) B. S. Kim et al. Plant Pathol. J. 15:348, 1999. (4) B. M. Pryor and T. J. Michailides. Phytopathology 92:406, 2002.
  7. Wong MY, Smart CD
    Plant Dis., 2012 Sep;96(9):1365-1371.
    PMID: 30727148 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-07-11-0593-SR
    A DNA macroarray was previously developed to detect major fungal and oomycete pathogens of solanaceous crops. To provide a convenient alternative for researchers with no access to X-ray film-developing facilities, specific CCD cameras or Chemidoc XRS systems, a chromogenic detection method with sensitivity comparable with chemiluminescent detection, has been developed. A fungal (Stemphylium solani) and an oomycete (Phytophthora capsici) pathogen were used to develop the protocol using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled targets. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2, was used as the target gene and polymerase chain reaction amplified as in the previous protocol. Various amounts of species-specific oligonucleotides on the array, quantities of DIG-labeled ITS amplicon, and hybridization temperatures were tested. The optimal conditions for hybridization were 55°C for 2 h using at least 10 pmol of each species-specific oligonucleotide and labeled target at 10 ng/ml of hybridization buffer. Incubation of the hybridized array with anti-DIG conjugated alkaline phosphatase substrates, NBT/BCIP, produced visible target signals between 1 and 3 h compared with 1 h in chemiluminescent detection. Samples from pure cultures, soil, and artificially inoculated plants were also used to compare the detection using chemiluminescent and chromogenic methods. Chromogenic detection was shown to yield similar results compared with chemiluminescent detection in regard to signal specificity, duration of hybridization between the array and targets, and cost, though it takes 1 to 2 h longer for the visualization process, thus providing a convenient alternative for researchers who lack darkroom facilities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DNA macroarray detection of plant pathogens using a chromogenic method.
  8. Zhou JN, Lin BR, Shen HF, Pu XM, Chen ZN, Feng JJ
    Plant Dis., 2012 May;96(5):760.
    PMID: 30727539 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-11-11-0942
    Phalaenopsis orchids, originally from tropical Asia, are mainly planted in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Taiwan and have gained popularity from consumers all over the world. The cultivation area of Phalaenopsis orchids has been rising and large-scale bases have been established in mainland China, especially South China because of suitable environmental conditions. In September 2011, a soft rot of Phalaenopsis aphrodita was found in a Phalaenopsis planting base in Guangzhou with an incidence of ~15%. Infected plants initially showed water-soaked, pale-to-dark brown pinpoint spots on leaves that were sometimes surrounded by a yellow halo. Spots expanded rapidly with rising humidity and temperatures, and in a few days, severely extended over the blade with a light tan color and darker brown border. Lesions decayed with odorous fumes and tissues collapsed with inclusions exuding. The bacterium advanced to the stem and pedicle. Finally, leaves became papery dry and the pedicles lodged. Six diseased samples were collected, and bacteria were isolated from the edge of symptomatic tissues after sterilization in 0.3% NaOCl for 10 min, rinsing in sterile water three times, and placing on nutrient agar for culture. Twelve representative isolates were selected for further characterization. All strains were gram negative, grew at 37°C, were positive for indole production, and utilized malonate, glucose, and sucrose but not glucopyranoside, trehalose, or palatinose. Biolog identification (version 4.20.05, Hayward, CA) was performed and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (SIM 0.868) was confirmed for the tested isolates (transfer to genus Dickeya). PCR was used to amplify the 16S rDNAgene with primers 27f and 1492r, dnaX gene with primers dnaXf and dnaXr (3), and gyrB gene with primers gyrBf (5'-GAAGGYAAAVTKCATCGTCAGG-3') and gyrB-r1 (5'-TCARATATCRATATTCGCYGCTTTC-3') designed on the basis of the published gyrB gene sequences of genus Dickeya. BLASTn was performed online, and phylogeny trees (100% bootstrap values) were created by means of MEGA 5.05 for these gene sequences, respectively. Results commonly showed that the representative tested strain, PA1, was most homologous to Dickeya dieffenbachiae with 98% identity for 16S rDNA(JN940859), 97% for dnaX (JN989971), and 96% for gyrB (JN971031). Thus, we recommend calling this isolate D. dieffenbachiae PA1. Pathogenicity tests were conducted by injecting 10 P. aphrodita seedlings with 100 μl of the bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU/ml) and another 10 were injected with 100 μl of sterile water as controls. Plants were inoculated in a greenhouse at 28 to 32°C and 90% relative humidity. Soft rot symptoms were observed after 2 days on the inoculated plants, but not on the control ones. The bacterium was isolated from the lesions and demonstrated identity to the inoculated plant by the 16S rDNA sequence comparison. Previously, similar diseases of P. amabilis were reported in Tangshan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Wuhan and causal agents were identified as Erwinia spp. (2), Pseudomonas grimontii (1), E. chrysanthemi, and E. carotovora subsp. carovora (4). To our knowledge, this is the first report of D. dieffenbachiae causing soft rot disease on P. aphrodita in China. References: (1) X. L. Chu and B. Yang. Acta Phytopathol. Sin. 40:90, 2010. (2) Y. M. Li et al. J. Beijing Agric. Coll. 19:41, 2004. (3) M. Sławiak et al. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 125:245, 2009. (4) Z. Y. Wu et al. J. Zhejiang For. Coll. 27:635, 2010.
  9. Sulaiman R, Thanarajoo SS, Kadir J, Vadamalai G
    Plant Dis., 2012 May;96(5):767.
    PMID: 30727556 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-06-11-0482-PDN
    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is an important biofuel crop worldwide. Although it has been reported to be resistant to pests and diseases (1), stem cankers have been observed on this plant at several locations in Peninsular Malaysia since early February 2008. Necrotic lesions on branches appear as scars with vascular discoloration in the tissue below the lesion. The affected area is brownish and sunken in appearance. Disease incidence of these symptomatic nonwoody plants can reach up to 80% in a plantation. Forty-eight samples of symptomatic branches collected from six locations (University Farm, Setiu, Gemenceh, Pulau Carey, Port Dickson, and Kuala Selangor) were surface sterilized in 10% bleach, rinsed twice with sterile distilled water, air dried on filter paper, and plated on water agar. After 4 days, fungal colonies on the agar were transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25°C. Twenty-seven single-spore fungal cultures obtained from all locations produced white, aerial mycelium that became dull gray after a week in culture. Pycnidia from 30-day-old pure cultures produced dark brown, oval conidia that were two celled, thin walled, and oval shape with longitudinal striations. The average size of the conidia was 23.63 × 12.72 μm with a length/width ratio of 1.86. On the basis of conidial morphology, these cultures were identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. To confirm the identity of the isolates, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers and sequenced. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (Accession Nos. HM466951, HM466953, HM466957, GU228527, HM466959, and GU219983). Sequences from the 27 isolates were 99 to 100% identical to two L. theobromae accessions in GenBank (Nos. HM008598 and HM999905). Hence, both morphological and molecular characteristics confirmed the isolates as L. theobromae. Pathogenicity tests were performed in the glasshouse with 2-month-old J. curcas seedlings. Each plant was wound inoculated by removing the bark on a branch to a depth of 2 mm with a 10-mm cork borer. Inoculation was conducted by inserting a 10-mm-diameter PDA plug of mycelium into the wound and wrapping the inoculation site with wetted, cotton wool and Parafilm. Control plants were treated with plugs of sterile PDA. Each isolate had four replicates and two controls. After 6 days of incubation, all inoculated plants produced sunken, necrotic lesions with vascular discoloration. Leaves were wilted and yellow above the point of inoculation on branches. The control plants remained symptomless. The pathogen was successfully reisolated from lesions on inoculated branches. L. theobromae has been reported to cause cankers and dieback in a wide range of hosts and is common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (2,3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of stem canker associated with L. theobromae on J. curcas in Malaysia. References: (1) S. Chitra and S. K. Dhyani. Curr. Sci. 91:162, 2006. (2) S. Mohali et al. For. Pathol. 35:385, 2005. (3) E. Punithalingam. Page 519 in: CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, UK. 1976.
  10. Rossman A, Melgar J, Walker D, Gonzales A, Ramirez T, Rivera J
    Plant Dis., 2012 May;96(5):765.
    PMID: 30727564 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0081-PDN
    In the last decade, rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L., Sapindaceae) and pulasan (N. mutabile Blume) have been cultivated in Honduras to produce exotic fruits for export to North America (2). Recently, a disease was observed that produces dark brown to black fissured cankers from 1 to 3 cm long and 1 to 4 cm wide. The infected bark tissue becomes swollen with the middle region 3 to 8 mm thick. Symptoms appear when the trees are approximately 3 years old. As the trees mature, the cankers increase in size and weaken the branches, often resulting in breakage with the weight of the fruit causing substantial plant damage and fruit loss. In August 2010, fissured branch samples of rambutan and pulasan were collected from 6- to 8-year-old trees from the Humid Tropical Demonstrative Agroforestry Center in Honduras, Atlantida, La Masica (15°33'47.4″N, 87°05'2.5″W, elevation 106 m). A fungus associated with the cankers was identified as Dolabra nepheliae. It produces black, stipitate, elongate ascomata, 312 to 482 × 250 to 281 μm with broadly cylindric, bitunicate asci, 120 to 138 × 11.2 to 15.0 μm, and filiform, hyaline ascospores, 128 to 135 × 2.8 to 3.2 μm. Fungi from rambutan and pulasan were isolated on cornmeal agar plus 0.5% dextrose and antibiotics. On potato dextrose agar, the ascospores produced slow-growing colonies, 5 mm per week. In culture, isolates from both hosts produced pycnidia with elongated, slightly to strongly curved or S-shaped, hyaline conidia, 22.8 to 46.4 × 2.8 to 3.7 μm. This fungus was first reported on rambutan and pulasan from Malaysia (1,4), and later reported on rambutan and litchi in Hawaii and Puerto Rico (3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of D. nepheliae on pulasan and rambutan from Honduras. Specimens have been deposited at the U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI 882442 on N. lappaceum and BPI 882443 on N. mutabile). Cultures were deposited at the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) as CBS 131490 on N. lappaceum and CBS 131491 on N. mutabile. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region including ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 intergenic spacers were deposited in GenBank (Accession No. JQ004281 on N. lappaceum and Accession No. JQ004280 on N. mutabile). A BLAST search and pairwise comparison using the GenBank web server were used to compare ITS sequence data and recovered the following results: (i) CBS 131490 on N. lappaceum is 99% (538 of 544) identical to D. nepheliae CBS 123297 on Litchi chinensis from Puerto Rico; and (ii) CBS 131491 on N. mutabile is 99% (527 of 533) identical to the same strain of D. nepheliae. On the basis of the ITS sequence data, the isolates from Honduras were confirmed as the same species, D. nepheliae from Puerto Rico. Efforts to develop resistant germplasm and management strategies to control this disease have been initiated. References: (1) C. Booth and W. P. Ting. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 47:235, 1964. (2) T. Ramírez et al. Manual Para el Cultivo de Rambutan en Honduras. Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola. La Lima, Cortes, Honduras, 2003. (3) A. Y. Rossman et al. Plant Dis. 91:1685, 2007. (4) H. Zalasky et al. Can. J. Bot. 49:559, 1971.
  11. Ismail H, Boedijono D, Hidayat H, Simbardjo D
    Malays Orthop J, 2012 Mar;6(1):18-24.
    PMID: 25279037 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1203.008
    ABSTRACT: Proximal humerus fracture is the second most common fracture of the upper extremity and presents several unique problems such as anatomical complexity, high risk of avascular necrosis, minimal bone stock for purchase, significant morbidity, and lack of a universally accepted treatment. Recent treatments for proximal humerus fractures include use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthysis (MIPO). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the outcomes of our less invasive technique using a modified anterolateral approach for treatment of proximal humerus fractures. Ten such operative procedures were performed in patients of varying age and with varied mechanism of injury from 2002-2011. All cases were conducted in an acute setting. There were no cases of infection and the functional outcome scores were good. This approach represents an alternative treatment for closed proximal humerus fracture but more extensive studies are needed.

    KEY WORDS: Proximal humerus fracture, MIPO, less invasive,anterolateral approach.

    MeSH terms: Bone Plates; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; Humeral Fractures; Humerus; Shoulder Fractures
  12. Ng SC, Tsoi KK, Kamm MA, Xia B, Wu J, Chan FK, et al.
    Inflamm. Bowel Dis., 2012 Jun;18(6):1164-76.
    PMID: 21887729 DOI: 10.1002/ibd.21845
    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Preliminary findings suggest that susceptibility genes differ between IBD patients in Asia and the West. We aimed to evaluate disease-predisposing genes in Asian IBD patients.

    METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed of published studies from 1950 to 2010 using keyword searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, and BIOSIS Previews.

    RESULTS: In all, 477 abstracts were identified and data extracted from 93 studies, comprising 17,976 IBD patients and 27,350 age- and sex-matched controls. Major nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 variants in Western Crohn's disease (CD) patients were not associated with CD in Han Chinese, Japanese, South Korean, Indian, and Malaysian populations. New NOD2 mutations were, however, associated with CD in Malaysians (JW1), Han Chinese, and Indians (P268S). Autophagy-related protein 16-linked 1 (ATG16L1) was not associated with CD in East Asians (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.13). Interleukin (IL)-23R was associated with CD in South Koreans (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.16-2.82) and a single nucleotide polymorphism in IL-23R (Gly149Arg) was protective of CD in Han Chinese (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.15-0.60). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene-15 (SF15) polymorphisms were associated with CD (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.86-3.86), while TNF-308 polymorphisms (OR 1.82; 95% CI 1.15-2.9), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.22-6.22) and MICA allele (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.89-3.07) were associated with ulcerative colitis in Asians.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genetic mutations of IBD in Asians differ from Caucasians. New mutations and susceptibility genes identified in Asian IBD patients provide an opportunity to explore new disease-associated mechanisms in this population of rising incidence.

    MeSH terms: Humans; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics*; Genetic Predisposition to Disease*; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics*
  13. Katsuura Y, Russell V
    Ir J Psychol Med, 2012 Jan;29(3):171-175.
    PMID: 30200052 DOI: 10.1017/S0790966700017201
    We report on the case of a middle-aged woman with a complex psychiatric history in whom atypical intrusive imagery identified in the mental status examination appeared to represent an emergence of childhood dissociative phenomena. These new symptoms led to the reappraisal of her clinical presentation and a diagnostic re-evaluation that they represented a re-emergence of childhood post-traumatic stress disorder secondary to sexual abuse. We discuss the phenomenology identified in our patient with the aim of increasing awareness of unusual symptoms in adults with a history of childhood sexual abuse and the importance of the mental state examination in eliciting and classifying such phenomena.
    MeSH terms: Adult; Dissociative Disorders; Female; Humans; Middle Aged; Sex Offenses; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Imagery (Psychotherapy)
  14. Mohamad N, Ponnusamy S, Devi S, Manikam R, Idrus II, Bakar NHA
    Res Rep Trop Med, 2012;3:103-106.
    PMID: 30100777 DOI: 10.2147/RRTM.S34483
    Melioidosis presents with a wide range of clinical presentations, which include severe community-acquired pneumonia, septicemia, central nervous system infection, and less severe soft tissue infection. Hence, its diagnosis depends heavily on the clinical microbiology laboratory for culture. In this case report, we describe an atypical presentation of melioidosis in a 52-year-old man who had fever, right upper-abdominal pain, and jaundice for 15 days. Melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei was subsequently diagnosed from blood culture. As a primary care physician, high suspicion index is of great importance. High suspicion index of melioidosis in a high-risk group patient, such as the patient with diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot, is crucial in view of atypical presentations of pseudomonas sepsis. A correct combination of antibiotic administration in the early phase of therapy will determine its successful outcome.
    MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Central Nervous System Infections; Fever; Humans; Jaundice; Male; Melioidosis; Middle Aged; Pneumonia; Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas Infections; Abdominal Pain; Bacteremia; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Diabetic Foot; Soft Tissue Infections; Sepsis; Physicians, Primary Care; Blood Culture
  15. Jaffry Zakaria
    The racial riot incident on 13th of May 1969 had opened the eyes of many people to realize on how important serious efforts to be focused in managing the sensitivity and the differences in multiracial society in countries like Malaysia. Many experts believe that integration can be build through outdoor education activities. The author will try to unravel and discuss on the outdoor education activity relations and integration campus community. This discussion will cover the latest issues and a variety of previous studies and personal experiences of the author as an outdoor education activist.
    MeSH terms: Eye; Humans; Malaysia; Riots; Societies; Continental Population Groups; Community Integration
  16. Yusop Ahmad, Nur Haziyanti Mohamad Khalid, Trevor Glen Philip
    This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
    MeSH terms: Communications Media; Eugenol; Humans; Zinc Oxide; Control Groups; Volleyball
  17. Nathan, Sanmuga
    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of SET pedagogical style training that combined teaching style E (Inclusion style) from Mosston Spectrum of Teaching Styles (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002) with Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), in hockey. A total of n=25, Form One low-skilled students (LSS) secondary school boys were involved in this study using Physical Education class for the duration of nine weeks. The effectiveness of the SET pedagogical style of training on LSS in hockey was measured using speed and accuracy executing general hockey skills, acquisition of declarative and procedural hockey knowledge as well as ball control, decision making (passing, tackling, dribbling and scoring) and skill execution (passing, tackling, dribbling and scoring) in 3 vs 3 game play. The data was analysed using MANCOVA together with other two training styles, which was not disclosed in this article. Findings indicated there were significant improvements in speed and accuracy executing hockey general skills, declarative and procedural knowledge using SET pedagogical style of training. Findings too revealed the SET style was able to develop significantly game components of ball control, decision makng and skill execution in 3 vs 3 game plays at posttest among LSS group. Conclusion, further research has to be done to validate the SET pedagogical style of training across many invasion games.
    MeSH terms: Decision Making; Hockey; Humans; Learning; Male; Physical Education and Training; Research; Students; Knowledge
  18. Nur Haziyanti Mohamad Khalid
    A study was conducted to examine resilience profiles among Sport Science students (N=280) in Sultan Idris Education University, Tanjong Malim. The resilience aspects were comprising risk factors, protective factors such as resilience strength, emotional intelligence, and locus of control, and also resilience outcomes in terms of students’ mental health status and their academic achievement. Adult Resiliency Attitudes Scale (ARAS), BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (BarOn EQi:YV), Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and students final examination results were used to measure the profiles. The results indicate that the academic factor was among the highest risk factors which contribute stress to the students. In terms of protective factors, students were strong enough in their morality aspect (resiliency strength), general mood (emotional intelligence) and internal locus of control. In fact, Sport Science students should possess very significant protective factors in terms of their resiliency strength, emotional intelligence and internal locus of control in order to face any future risk factors and to stabilize their mental health status.
  19. Nelfianty Mohd Rasyid, Shaharudin Abd Aziz
    The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred coaching styles of the Malaysian Sports School athletes based on gender, age group, and types of sports they had participated. This study utilised the athletes preferred version of the Leadership Scale for Sport questionnaire (LSS). The subjects were the population of two Malaysian Sport School athletes (N = 854; Bukit Jalil Sports School = 409, Bandar Penawar Sports School = 445). The findings demonstrated that Training and Instruction (M = 4:09, SD = 73) was the most preferred leadership style by the athletes, followed by Democratic (M = 3.87, SD = .75), Social Support (M = 3.74, SD = .75) and Positive Feedback (M = 3:59, SD = .82). Autocratic behavior was the least preferred coaching style (M = 2.35, SD = 96). T-test analysis showed that there were significant differences between autocratic leadership style t(852) = 4.63, p
    MeSH terms: Leadership; Surveys and Questionnaires; Social Support; Sports; Athletes; Educational Personnel; Mentoring
  20. Kuan Boon, Ong, Timothy R Ackland
    Athletes and coaches in the sport of sprint kayaking and canoeing face contradicting philosophies about the optimum physical structure of the paddler and equipment setup characteristics. There exists however, little normative data in the scientific literature for the current physical size and proportionality characteristics as well as equipment set-up of World-class or Asian sprint paddlers. These data and basic understanding of paddlers’ morphology and boat set-up would be useful for Malaysian coaches when initially selecting talented individuals for development programs as well as in determining their specialist events. Ackland et al. (2003) found that participants in Olympic sprint paddling events considered to be homogeneous in shape and physical size, male and female paddlers have SAMs of 1.1 and 1.0 respectively. Compared to other athlete groups the variance in stature and body mass of paddlers is generally low. Whilst sprint paddlers are not athletes with extreme proportionality profiles, they do possess unique characteristics not commonly observed in the general population. Whereas in equipment set-up, Ong et al. (2005) found that there are consistent differences for both male and female athletes among sprint and slalom kayak paddlers who competed at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney. The sprint paddlers seated higher and using longer paddles with longer, though narrower blades (p>0.0001). But, among male sprint paddlers, only minor differences in equipment set-up were found between competitors ranked in the top 10 places to the rest of the field. Significant (p
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