• 1 Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology-Iraq, Baghdad 10066, Iraq; School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England, UK
  • 2 School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, England, UK
  • 3 Sustainability Solutions Research Lab, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
  • 4 Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, 550000 Danang, Viet Nam; School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Duy Tan University, 550000 Danang, Viet Nam. Electronic address:
  • 5 The University of Danang-University of Science and Technology, Danang 550000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:
  • 6 Institute of Chemistry and Materials, Nghia Do, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Viet Nam
  • 7 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007, Gujarat, India
  • 8 Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Subtropical Water Environment and Marine Biological Resources Protection, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China; Department of Sustainable Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India; Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. Electronic address:
  • 9 Department of Environmental Energy Engineering, Kyonggi University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
Sci Total Environ, 2023 Mar 01;862:160702.
PMID: 36481155 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160702


The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the mathematical model of drift flux to the experimental results of the effect of cationic trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB)-aided continuous foam flotation harvesting on the lipid content in Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the operating conditions on the enrichment factor (EF) and percentage recovery efficiency (%RE), where the flow rates at the inlet and bottom outlet remained constant. Data for the binary system (without algae) and ternary system (with algae) in an equal-area foam column show that the EF decreases linearly with increasing initial CTAB concentrations ranging from 30 to 75 mg/L for three levels of the studied air volumetric flow rate range (1-3) L/min. The percentage harvesting efficiency increased with increasing initial CTAB concentration and air volumetric flow rate to 96 % in the binary systems and 94 % in the ternary systems. However, in the foam column with the riser used in the three systems, a lower volume of liquid foam in the upward outlet stream resulted in a lower RE% than that of the column without the riser. The objective function of EF for the system with algae increased when the initial CTAB concentration was increased from 30 to 45 mg/L in the foam column with a riser for all air flow rates, and after 45 mg/L, a sudden drop in the microalgae EF was observed. In the comparison between the foam column with and without the riser for the system with algae, the optimum EF was 145 for the design of the column with the riser and 139 for the column without the riser.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.