This study investigates the published literature and incorporates our field data from 1997 to September 2018 to generate an inventory report of primary freshwater fishes for Perak State in Malaysia. We critically examined and enumerated 186 species from 2 classes, 16 orders, 43 families and 114 genera in 57 localities. A total of 173 fish species (91.4%) are native to Perak and 17 species (8.6%) are non-native. The provisional checklist presented herein is conservative and excludes doubtful inventory records that lack synthesis and traceability. We encountered seven taxonomic discrepancies and we also could not confidently identify eight species. These are explicitly discussed to inform future workers.
Fishes from five streams in Gunung Machinchang and six streams in Gunung Raya areas of Pulau Langkawi were surveyed with the aim to investigate their diversity and distribution. Fish samples were collected from 23rd to 29th November 2007. Samplings took place along the 50 m reach of each of the site using an electrofisher and scoop nets. A total of 619 individuals of fish comprising 27 species and 14 families were recorded. Sixty-six percent from the taxa listed were of the cyprinids and Puntius binotatus was the most abundant species. Carassius auratus auratus was recorded for the first time in Pulau Langkawi. Streams of the Gunung Machinchang area were dominated by secondary freshwater fish species, but in the Gunung Raya area the streams were dominated by primary freshwater fish species. The highest diversity of fish was recorded for Sg. Kubang Badak with Simpson Index Ds = 0.838 and the lowest was for Sg. Perangin with Ds = 0.450. The highest evenness index of fish species was detected for Sg. Temurun with Es = 0.684 and the lowest was for Sg. Perangin with Es = 0.299. Species overlapping between streams of the two areas was 9.6%.
Groundwater provides critical freshwater supply, particularly in dry regions where surface water availability is limited. Climate change impacts on GWS (groundwater storage) could affect the sustainability of freshwater resources. Here, we used a fully-coupled climate model to investigate GWS changes over seven critical aquifers identified as significantly distressed by satellite observations. We assessed the potential climate-driven impacts on GWS changes throughout the 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario (RCP8.5). Results show that the climate-driven impacts on GWS changes do not necessarily reflect the long-term trend in precipitation; instead, the trend may result from enhancement of evapotranspiration, and reduction in snowmelt, which collectively lead to divergent responses of GWS changes across different aquifers. Finally, we compare the climate-driven and anthropogenic pumping impacts. The reduction in GWS is mainly due to the combined impacts of over-pumping and climate effects; however, the contribution of pumping could easily far exceed the natural replenishment.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different light sources and media (wastewater and BBM) on the growth of Pseudanabaena mucicola and its phycobiliprotein production. Results showed that P. mucicola grown in white light using wastewater as medium attributed higher biomass (0.55 g L-1) and when extracted with water, also showed significantly higher (P water can be food grade natural blue pigment. Moreover, cyanobacteria grown in wastewater could cut down the production cost of phycobiliprotein.
UV-visible spectroscopy has been shown to be a useful technique for determining dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. However, at present we are unaware of any studies in the literature that have investigated the suitability of this approach for tropical DOC water samples from any tropical peatlands, although some work has been performed in other tropical environments. We used water samples from two oil palm estates in Sarawak, Malaysia to: i) investigate the suitability of both single and two-wavelength proxies for tropical DOC determination; ii) develop a calibration dataset and set of parameters to calculate DOC concentrations indirectly; iii) provide tropical researchers with guidance on the best spectrophotometric approaches to use in future analyses of DOC. Both single and two-wavelength model approaches performed well with no one model significantly outperforming the other. The predictive ability of the models suggests that UV-visible spectroscopy is both a viable and low cost method for rapidly analyzing DOC in water samples immediately post-collection, which can be important when working at remote field sites with access to only basic laboratory facilities.
This paper presents the modelled raindrop size parameters in Skudai region of the Johor Bahru, western Malaysia. Presently, there is no model to forecast the characteristics of DSD in Malaysia, and this has an underpinning implication on wet weather pollution predictions. The climate of Skudai exhibits local variability in regional scale. This study established five different parametric expressions describing the rain rate of Skudai; these models are idiosyncratic to the climate of the region. Sophisticated equipment that converts sound to a relevant raindrop diameter is often too expensive and its cost sometimes overrides its attractiveness. In this study, a physical low-cost method was used to record the DSD of the study area. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to test the aptness of the data to exponential and lognormal distributions, which were subsequently used to formulate the parameterisation of the distributions. This research abrogates the concept of exclusive occurrence of convective storm in tropical regions and presented a new insight into their concurrence appearance.
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment found in several aquatic organisms, is responsible for the red colour of salmon, trout and crustaceans. In this study, astaxanthin production from freshwater microalga Chlorella sorokiniana and marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. was investigated. Cell growth and astaxanthin production were determined spectrophotometrically at 620 and 480 nm, respectively. Astaxanthin was extracted using acetone and measured subsequent to biomass removal. Aerated conditions favoured astaxanthin production in C. sorokiniana, whereas Tetraselmis sp. was best cultured under unaerated conditions. C. sorokiniana produced more astaxanthin with the highest yield reached at 7.83 mg/l in 6.0 mM in nitrate containing medium compared to Tetraselmis sp. which recorded the highest yield of only 1.96 mg/l in 1.5 mM nitrate containing medium. Production in C. sorokiniana started at the early exponential phase, indicating that astaxanthin may be a growth-associated product in this microalga. Further optimization of astaxanthin production was performed using C. sorokiniana through a 2(3) full factorial experimental design, and a yield of 8.39 mg/l was achieved. Overall, the study has shown that both microalgae are capable of producing astaxanthin. Additionally, this research has highlighted C. sorokiniana as a potential astaxanthin producer that could serve as a natural astaxanthin source in the current market.
This study investigate the relationships between geomorphometric properties and the minimum low flow discharge of undisturbed drainage basins in the Taman Bukit Cahaya Seri Alam Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. The drainage basins selected were third-order basins so as to facilitate a common base for sampling and performing an unbiased statistical analyses. Three levels of relationships were observed in the study. Significant relationships existed between the geomorphometric properties as shown by the correlation network analysis; secondly, individual geomorphometric properties were observed to influence minimum flow discharge; and finally, the multiple regression model set up showed that minimum flow discharge (Q min) was dependent of basin area (AU), stream length (LS), maximum relief (Hmax), average relief (HAV) and stream frequency (SF). These findings further enforced other studies of this nature that drainage basins were dynamic and functional entities whose operations were governed by complex interrelationships occurring within the basins. Changes to any of the geomorphometric properties would influence their role as basin regulators thus influencing a change in basin response. In the case of the basin's minimum low flow, a change in any of the properties considered in the regression model influenced the "time to peak" of flow. A shorter time period would mean higher discharge, which is generally considered the prerequisite to flooding. This research also conclude that the role of geomorphometric properties to control the water supply within the stream through out the year even though during the drought and less precipitations months. Drainage basins are sensitive entities and any deteriorations involve will generate reciprocals and response to the water supply as well as the habitat within the areas.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a well-known waterborne pathogen that recently was found to infect humans. Here, we report the draft genome of a freshwater isolate from a Malaysian waterfall, A. hydrophila strain M023, which portrays N-acylhomoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing.
Pectobacterium carotovorum is known to cause serious damage to various major crops worldwide. Here, we report the draft genome of Pectobacterium carotovorum strain M022, a freshwater isolate from a Malaysian waterfall, which has been reported as a plant pathogen and is able to communicate with N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing.
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Chromobacterium piscinae strain ND17. This bacterium was isolated from a fresh water sample in Malaysia and exhibits quorum-sensing activity. This first draft genome of C. piscinae strain ND17 will pave the way to future studies of the quorum-sensing properties of this isolate.
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which is one of the most commonly found microcystins (MCs) in fresh water, has been proved to be a potential tumour promoter and classified as 2B by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. MC-LR decomposition and inhibition of MC-LR production in Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated under electrolysis condition using an electrolysis cell consisting of Ti/Pt electrodes and Nafion membrane. The relationship between the decrease in MC-LR concentration and transcription of MC-LR synthesis gene clusters was determined by performing real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to monitor changes in the levels of transcription encoding mcyB and mcyD (cDNA to DNA) in M. aeruginosa NIES 1086 under electrolysis condition and three different conditions (i.e. oxygenated, air aerated and unaerated) as controls. Cell density decreased from day 2 under electrolysis than under the three controls. Intracellular MC-LR concentration was approximately 33 fg cell-1 under electrolysis from days 4 to 8, while those in the other conditions ranged in 40-50 fg cell-1. The mcyB transcription continuously decreased from day 2 to nondetectable level in day 6 under electrolysis, while this transcription was stabilised under the three controls. This result suggested that oxidative stress, such as hydroxyl radicals, played an important role in the down-regulation of mcyB and mcyD gene transcription level and the MC-LR concentration and cell density of M. aeruginosa.
Sabah, a Malaysian state at the north-eastern tip of Borneo, is situated in one of the Earth's biodiversity hotspots yet its freshwater gastropod diversity remains poorly known. An annotated checklist of the freshwater gastropods is presented, based on specimens deposited in the BORNEENSIS collection of the Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation at Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia. A KMZ file is also provided, which acts as a repository of digital images and complete collection data of all examined material, so that it can be shared and adapted to facilitate future research.
Fish crackers made from freshwater fishes is a new dimension in fish cracker industry. In this study, three species were chosen based on their general preference and acceptability by Malaysian. Together with other ingredients, these crackers were prepared using standard formulation and tested in laboratory for their proximate analysis and physical characteristic analysis includes linear expansion, oil absorption, color measurement and texture. Sensory analysis for overall acceptability was carried out among trained panelist in the school. The results for proximate composition and physical analysis showed that there were significant differences (p
Classified as a small island, Kapas Island experiences major problems especially in supplying freshwater where groundwater abstraction is the only way to meet the demand of drinking water and domestic use. Groundwater samples were collected from seven constructed boreholes to examine the hydrochemistry properties of major ions and in-situ parameters as these could provide a basis for future reference. The chemical composition showed strong and significant correlation for each studied parameter; an indication of the effect of environmental variables to the groundwater composition. The composition changed from Ca-rich to Na-rich are explained mostly by mixing and cation exchange processes. This study provided an input for water management at Kapas Island where groundwater is a crucial resource to maintain the hydrogeological balance of the island.
Water constitutes one of the basic necessities of life. Around 71% of the Earth is covered by water, however, not all of it is readily available as fresh water for daily consumption. Fresh water scarcity is a chronic issue which poses a threat to all living things on Earth. Seawater, as a natural resource abundantly available all around the world, is a potential water source to fulfil the increasing water demand. Climate-independent seawater desalination has been touted as a crucial alternative to provide fresh water. While the membrane-based desalination process continues to dominate the global desalination market, the currently employed membrane fabrication materials and processes inevitably bring adverse impacts to the environment. This review aims to elucidate and provide a comprehensive outlook of the recent efforts based on greener approaches used for desalination membrane fabrication, which paves the way towards achieving sustainable and eco-friendly processes. Membrane fabrication using green chemistry effectively minimizes the generation of hazardous compounds during membrane preparation. The future trends and recommendations which could potentially be beneficial for researchers in this field are also highlighted.
While wetlands are the largest natural source of methane (CH4 ) to the atmosphere, they represent a large source of uncertainty in the global CH4 budget due to the complex biogeochemical controls on CH4 dynamics. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first multi-site synthesis of how predictors of CH4 fluxes (FCH4) in freshwater wetlands vary across wetland types at diel, multiday (synoptic), and seasonal time scales. We used several statistical approaches (correlation analysis, generalized additive modeling, mutual information, and random forests) in a wavelet-based multi-resolution framework to assess the importance of environmental predictors, nonlinearities and lags on FCH4 across 23 eddy covariance sites. Seasonally, soil and air temperature were dominant predictors of FCH4 at sites with smaller seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD). In contrast, WTD was the dominant predictor for wetlands with smaller variations in temperature (e.g., seasonal tropical/subtropical wetlands). Changes in seasonal FCH4 lagged fluctuations in WTD by ~17 ± 11 days, and lagged air and soil temperature by median values of 8 ± 16 and 5 ± 15 days, respectively. Temperature and WTD were also dominant predictors at the multiday scale. Atmospheric pressure (PA) was another important multiday scale predictor for peat-dominated sites, with drops in PA coinciding with synchronous releases of CH4 . At the diel scale, synchronous relationships with latent heat flux and vapor pressure deficit suggest that physical processes controlling evaporation and boundary layer mixing exert similar controls on CH4 volatilization, and suggest the influence of pressurized ventilation in aerenchymatous vegetation. In addition, 1- to 4-h lagged relationships with ecosystem photosynthesis indicate recent carbon substrates, such as root exudates, may also control FCH4. By addressing issues of scale, asynchrony, and nonlinearity, this work improves understanding of the predictors and timing of wetland FCH4 that can inform future studies and models, and help constrain wetland CH4 emissions.
Plastics are synthetic polymers known for their outstanding durability and versatility, and have replaced traditional materials in many applications. Unfortunately, their unique traits ensure that they pose a major threat to the environment. While literature on freshwater microplastic contamination has grown over the recent years, research undertaken in rapidly developing countries, where plastic production and use are increasing dramatically, has lagged behind that in other parts of the world. In the South East Asia (SEA) region, basic information on levels of contamination is very limited and, as a consequence, the risk to human and ecological health remains hard to assess. This review synthesises what is currently known about microplastic contamination of freshwater ecosystems in SEA, with a particular focus on Malaysia. The review 1) summarises published studies that have assessed levels of contamination in freshwater systems in SEA, 2) discusses key sources and transport pathways of microplastic in freshwaters, 3) outlines what is known of the impacts of microplastic on freshwater organisms, and 4) identifies key knowledge gaps related to our understanding of the transport, fate and effects of microplastic.
Biofouling in canals and pipelines used for hydroelectric power generation decreases the flow capacity of conduits. A pipeline rig was designed consisting of test sections of varying substrata (PVC, painted steel) and light levels (transparent, frosted, opaque). Stalk-forming diatoms were abundant in both the frosted and transparent PVC pipes but negligible in the painted steel and opaque PVC pipes. Fungi were slightly more abundant in the painted steel pipe but equally present in all the other pipes while bacterial diversity was similar in all pipes. Photosynthetically functional biofouling (mainly diatoms) was able to develop in near darkness. Different biological fouling compositions generated differing friction factors. The highest friction factor was observed in the transparent pipe (densest diatom fouling), the lowest peak friction for the opaque PVC pipe (lowest fouling biomass), and with the painted steel pipe (high fouling biomass, but composed of fungal and bacterial crusts) being intermediate between the opaque and frosted PVC pipes.