• 1 The University of Danang, University of Science and Technology, 54 Nguyen Luong Bang St., Danang 550 000, Viet Nam
  • 2 Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • 3 School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, Jalan Sunsuria, Bandar Sunsuria, 43900 Sepang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China. Electronic address:
  • 4 The University of Danang, University of Technology and Education, 48 Cao Thang St., Danang 550 000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:
  • 5 Biological Resource Center/Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeonbuk 56212, Republic of Korea; University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea
  • 6 The University of Danang, University of Technology and Education, 48 Cao Thang St., Danang 550 000, Viet Nam
  • 7 The University of Danang, University of Science and Education, 459 Ton Duc Thang St., Danang 550 000, Viet Nam
  • 8 National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 01 Yecxanh St, Hanoi, Viet Nam
J Biotechnol, 2022 Jan 10;343:120-127.
PMID: 34896159 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.12.002


Co-culture of microalgae and microorganisms, supported with the resulting synergistic effects, can be used for wastewater treatment, biomass production, agricultural applications and etc. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the role of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) in tolerance against the harsh environment of seafood wastewater, at which these microalgal-bacterial flocs were formed by microalgae cultivation. In this present study, B. subtilis isolated from the cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris and exposed to different salinity (0.1-4% w/v sodium chloride) and various pH range to determine the tolerant ability and biofilm formation. Interestingly, this bacteria strain that isolated from microalgae cultivation medium showed the intense viability in the salt concentration exceeding up to 4% (w/v) NaCl but demonstrated the decrease in cell division as environmental culture undergoing over pH 10. Cell viability was recorded higher than 71% and 92% for B. subtilis inoculum in media with salt concentration greater than 20 gL-1 and external pH 6.5-9, respectively. This showed that B. subtilis isolated from microalgal-bacteria cocultivation exhibited its tolerant ability to survive in the extremely harsh conditions and thus, mitigating the stresses due to salinity and pH.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.