• 1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching, Malaysia
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2023 Apr;75(Suppl 1):1096-1100.
PMID: 37206815 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-023-03625-4


Recurrent epistaxis represents an alarming sign that may suggest a sinister aetiology, especially in patients with previous head and neck malignancy. The recognition of certain potentially life-threatening conditions, namely pseudoaneurysm or tumour recurrence, remains prudence to avoid disastrous repercussion. Nasal endoscopy has become an essential tool in otolaryngology. It can aid identify the underlying cause of epistasis and facilitate therapeutic management. On the other hand, radio imaging is highly sensitive in detecting vascular lesions, besides providing a pre-operative mapping if surgical intervention is planned. This paper reported a patient with sphenoidal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in remission presented with torrential epistaxis not relieved with nasal packing. Despite a repeated angiogram and magnetic resonance image, the identification of the source of bleeding remained futile, culminating in an examination under general anaesthesia. The diagnosis of carotid blowout syndrome was made intraoperatively, and the bleeding was temporarily secured with a muscular patch, preceded by the insertion of a vascular stent. The authors wish to highlight the importance of examination under general anaesthesia if radio imaging does not correlate to the clinical findings. Management options for carotid blowout should be tailored to the patients' medical conditions.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12070-023-03625-4.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.