Tracheal bronchus (TB) is a rare congenital anomaly described as a abnormal bronchus that originates directly from the trachea above the carina directed towards the upper lung lobe. We analysed all paediatric rigid endoscopies of the airway from January 2015 until August 2020 to determine the incidence and characteristic of TB. In total, 68 rigid endoscopic airway examination record from children aged 0 to 12 years were analyzed. Endoscopic examination was performed from supraglottic region to carina using a 0 degree Hopkins rod lens telescope. Patients with a TB were identified and the site of TB origin was noted. Data of the identified patients was reviewed for the presence of preoperative airway findings such as stridor, upper lobe pneumonia, other congenital anomalies, intraoperative findings and complications and postoperative general condition outcome. TB was detected in 8 (11.8%) of 68 airway endoscopic examinations. 6 children (75%) were syndromic. 5 patients (62.5%) has congenital malacic airway and 2 patients (25%) has congenital tracheal stenosis. All TB originated from the right lateral wall of the trachea. All children had stridor unrelated to TB as presentation and 4 (50%) of children had preoperative upper lobe pneumonia. Tracheal bronchus is not a rare finding and is highly associated with syndromes and other airway anomalies. Although children with TB can be asymptomatic, upper lobe pneumonia is a common presentation. TB should be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent right upper lobe pneumonia or collapse and patients with unexplained oxygenation problem during endotracheal intubation, particularly in children with syndromes or other congenital anomalies.
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