• 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 2 Photonics Research Centre, Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research & Innovation) Office, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2023;53(4):869-886.
PMID: 34672838 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2021.1989657


A detailed overview toward the advancement of amino acid-based electrochemical sensors on the detection of heavy metals is presented. Discussion is focused on the unique properties of various amino acids (AAs) and its composites which allow them being employed in a diverse range of sensing platforms. Formation of metal-ligand complexes in between metal ions and different AAs has been discussed. The essential insights on the interaction between amino acid-based sensors and target heavy metal ions (HMIs) are provided, along with the discussion on their pros and cons. Voltammetry analysis of metal ions based on various interfaces of electrochemical sensors has been highlighted, together with the incorporation of AAs with organic, inorganic and bio-materials. In all these cases, the amino acid modified electrodes have demonstrated large active surface area with abundant adsorption sites for HMIs. The developed sensors are promising for environmental applications, as evidenced by the high selectivity, high sensitivity, high catalytic activity, and low detection limits. The materials involved, fabrication techniques and its sensing mechanism were comprehensively discussed, and the future outlooks of electrochemical sensing platforms are emphasized in this review.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.