The effects of structure and concentration of surfactants on the biodegradation of fluoranthene, a three rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the biodegradation and enzyme activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic Tween 80 4,500 mg/L) was showed by Tween 80 (10 mg/L) culture, manifesting that the non-ionic surfactant present in the culture were beneficial to the fungal growth. Laccase showed the highest enzymes activity in all surfactants culture. Non-ionic Tween 80 showed a significant result for laccase activity (1,902 U/L) in the Armillaria sp. F022 culture. The increased enzymes cumulative activity may stem directly from the rising fluoranthene biodegradability as addition of appropriate surfactants. The biotransformation of fluoranthene was greatly improved by Tween 80, and totally fluoranthene degradation was obtained as Tween 80 was 10 mg/L. Two fluoranthene metabolites were isolated from the culture medium and analyzed by a thin layer chromatography, UV visible spectrometer and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oxidation of fluoranthene is initiated by oxygenation at the C-2,3 positions resulting 9-fluorenone. At the end of experiment, one metabolite was detected in the culture extract and identified as phthalic acid. Evidently, Armillaria sp. F022 seems efficient, high effective and deserves further application on the enhanced bioremediation technologies for the treatment of fluoranthene-contaminated soil.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.