• 1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:9-14.
PMID: 23652423


The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are systems in which an unstable antitoxin inhibits a stable toxin. This review aims to introduce the TA system and its biological application in bacteria. For this purpose, first we introduce a new classification for the TA systems based on how the antitoxin can neutralize the toxin, we then describe the functions of TA systems and finally review the application of these systems in biotechnology.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.