Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 191 in total

  1. Shukor MY, Halmi MI, Rahman MF, Shamaan NA, Syed MA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:853084.
    PMID: 24724104 DOI: 10.1155/2014/853084
    The first purification of the Mo-reducing enzyme from Serratia sp. strain DRY5 that is responsible for molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue in the bacterium is reported. The monomeric enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of 105 kDalton. The isoelectric point of this enzyme was 7.55. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 6.0 and maximum activity between 25 and 35°C. The Mo-reducing enzyme was extremely sensitive to temperatures above 50°C (between 54 and 70°C). A plot of initial rates against substrate concentrations at 15 mM 12-MP registered a V max for NADH at 12.0 nmole Mo blue/min/mg protein. The apparent K m for NADH was 0.79 mM. At 5 mM NADH, the apparent V max and apparent K m values for 12-MP of 12.05 nmole/min/mg protein and 3.87 mM, respectively, were obtained. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of the Mo-reducing enzyme was 5.47 M(-1) s(-1). The purification of this enzyme could probably help to solve the phenomenon of molybdenum reduction to molybdenum blue first reported in 1896 and would be useful for the understanding of the underlying mechanism in molybdenum bioremediation involving bioreduction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  2. Tahir Ul Qamar M, Ahmad S, Khan A, Mirza MU, Ahmad S, Abro A, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2021 11;138:104929.
    PMID: 34655900 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104929
    Cholera is a severe small intestine bacterial disease caused by consumption of water and food contaminated with Vibrio cholera. The disease causes watery diarrhea leading to severe dehydration and even death if left untreated. In the past few decades, V. cholerae has emerged as multidrug-resistant enteric pathogen due to its rapid ability to adapt in detrimental environmental conditions. This research study aimed to design inhibitors of a master virulence gene expression regulator, HapR. HapR is critical in regulating the expression of several set of V. cholera virulence genes, quorum-sensing circuits and biofilm formation. A blind docking strategy was employed to infer the natural binding tendency of diverse phytochemicals extracted from medicinal plants by exposing the whole HapR structure to the screening library. Scoring function criteria was applied to prioritize molecules with strong binding affinity (binding energy 
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  3. Zamakhaev M, Grigorov A, Bespyatykh J, Azhikina T, Goncharenko A, Shumkov M
    Arch Microbiol, 2022 Dec 15;205(1):28.
    PMID: 36520276 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-022-03363-1
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extremely successful pathogen known for its ability to cause latent infection. The latter is connected with the bacterium resting state development and is considered to be based on the activity of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems at least in part. Here we studied the physiological and proteomic consequences of VapC toxin overexpression together with the features of the protein synthesis apparatus and compared them with the characteristics of dormant mycobacterial cells in an M. smegmatis model. The findings allow suggesting the mechanism mycobacteria enter dormancy, which is realized through VapC-caused cleavage of the 23S rRNA Sarcin-Ricin loop followed by conservation of stalled ribosomes in a membrane-associated manner. The found features of resting mycobacteria protein synthesis apparatus hypothesize the mechanisms of resuscitation from dormancy through the ribosomes de-association off the membrane accompanied by the 23S rRNA break curing, and could be of value for the development of principally new antituberculosis agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  4. Yaacob MA, Hasan WA, Ali MS, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M, et al.
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2014;61(4):745-52.
    PMID: 25337608
    Genome mining revealed a 1011 nucleotide-long fragment encoding a type I L-asparaginase (J15 asparaginase) from the halo-tolerant Photobacterium sp. strain J15. The gene was overexpressed in pET-32b (+) vector in E. coli strain Rosetta-gami B (DE3) pLysS and purified using two-step chromatographic methods: Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The final specific activity and yield of the enzyme achieved from these steps were 20 U/mg and 49.2%, respectively. The functional dimeric form of J15-asparaginase was characterised with a molecular weight of ~70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 25°C and pH 7.0, respectively. This protein was stable in the presence of 1 mM Ni(2+) and Mg(2+), but it was inhibited by Mn(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) at the same concentration. J15 asparaginase actively hydrolysed its native substrate, l-asparagine, but had low activity towards l-glutamine. The melting temperature of J15 asparaginase was ~51°C, which was determined using denatured protein analysis of CD spectra. The Km, Kcat, Kcat/Km of J15 asparaginase were 0.76 mM, 3.2 s(-1), and 4.21 s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. Conformational changes of the J15 asparaginase 3D structure at different temperatures (25°C, 45°C, and 65°C) were analysed using Molecular Dynamic simulations. From the analysis, residues Tyr₂₄ , His₂₂, Gly₂₃, Val₂₅ and Pro₂₆ may be directly involved in the 'open' and 'closed' lid-loop conformation, facilitating the conversion of substrates during enzymatic reactions. The properties of J15 asparaginase, which can work at physiological pH and has low glutaminase activity, suggest that this could be a good candidate for reducing toxic effects during cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  5. Yap TW, Rabu A, Abu Bakar FD, Rahim RA, Mahadi NM, Illias RM, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:642891.
    PMID: 24982972 DOI: 10.1155/2014/642891
    Lactococcus lactis is the most studied mesophilic fermentative lactic acid bacterium. It is used extensively in the food industry and plays a pivotal role as a cell factory and also as vaccine delivery platforms. The proteome of the Malaysian isolated L. lactis M4 dairy strain, obtained from the milk of locally bred cows, was studied to elucidate the physiological changes occurring between the growth phases of this bacterium. In this study, ultraperformance liquid chromatography nanoflow electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC- nano-ESI-MS(E)) approach was used for qualitative proteomic analysis. A total of 100 and 121 proteins were identified from the midexponential and early stationary growth phases, respectively, of the L. lactis strain M4. During the exponential phase, the most important reaction was the generation of sufficient energy, whereas, in the early stationary phase, the metabolic energy pathways decreased and the biosynthesis of proteins became more important. Thus, the metabolism of the cells shifted from energy production in the exponential phase to the synthesis of macromolecules in the stationary phase. The resultant proteomes are essential in providing an improved view of the cellular machinery of L. lactis during the transition of growth phases and hence provide insight into various biotechnological applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  6. Al-Maleki AR, Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0127398.
    PMID: 25996927 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127398
    Burkholderia pseudomallei primary diagnostic cultures demonstrate colony morphology variation associated with expression of virulence and adaptation proteins. This study aims to examine the ability of B. pseudomallei colony variants (wild type [WT] and small colony variant [SCV]) to survive and replicate intracellularly in A549 cells and to identify the alterations in the protein expression of these variants, post-exposure to the A549 cells. Intracellular survival and cytotoxicity assays were performed followed by proteomics analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. B. pseudomallei SCV survive longer than the WT. During post-exposure, among 259 and 260 protein spots of SCV and WT, respectively, 19 were differentially expressed. Among SCV post-exposure up-regulated proteins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (CbbA) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase were associated with adhesion and virulence. Among the down-regulated proteins, enolase (Eno) is implicated in adhesion and virulence. Additionally, post-exposure expression profiles of both variants were compared with pre-exposure. In WT pre- vs post-exposure, 36 proteins were differentially expressed. Of the up-regulated proteins, translocator protein, Eno, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), ferritin Dps-family DNA binding protein and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B were implicated in invasion and virulence. In SCV pre- vs post-exposure, 27 proteins were differentially expressed. Among the up-regulated proteins, flagellin, Eno, CbbA, Ndk and phenylacetate-coenzyme A ligase have similarly been implicated in adhesion, invasion. Protein profiles differences post-exposure provide insights into association between morphotypic and phenotypic characteristics of colony variants, strengthening the role of B. pseudomallei morphotypes in pathogenesis of melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  7. Ishak SNH, Aris SNAM, Halim KBA, Ali MSM, Leow TC, Kamarudin NHA, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Sep 25;22(10).
    PMID: 28946656 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22101574
    Less sedimentation and convection in a microgravity environment has become a well-suited condition for growing high quality protein crystals. Thermostable T1 lipase derived from bacterium Geobacilluszalihae has been crystallized using the counter diffusion method under space and earth conditions. Preliminary study using YASARA molecular modeling structure program for both structures showed differences in number of hydrogen bond, ionic interaction, and conformation. The space-grown crystal structure contains more hydrogen bonds as compared with the earth-grown crystal structure. A molecular dynamics simulation study was used to provide insight on the fluctuations and conformational changes of both T1 lipase structures. The analysis of root mean square deviation (RMSD), radius of gyration, and root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) showed that space-grown structure is more stable than the earth-grown structure. Space-structure also showed more hydrogen bonds and ion interactions compared to the earth-grown structure. Further analysis also revealed that the space-grown structure has long-lived interactions, hence it is considered as the more stable structure. This study provides the conformational dynamics of T1 lipase crystal structure grown in space and earth condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  8. Latip W, Raja Abd Rahman RNZ, Leow ATC, Mohd Shariff F, Kamarudin NHA, Mohamad Ali MS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Feb 13;19(2).
    PMID: 29438291 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020560
    Lipase plays an important role in industrial and biotechnological applications. Lipases have been subject to modification at the N and C terminals, allowing better understanding of lipase stability and the discovery of novel properties. A thermotolerant lipase has been isolated from Antarctic Pseudomonas sp. The purified Antarctic AMS3 lipase (native) was found to be stable across a broad range of temperatures and pH levels. The lipase has a partial Glutathione-S-transferase type C (GST-C) domain at the N-terminal not found in other lipases. To understand the influence of N-terminal GST-C domain on the biochemical and structural features of the native lipase, the deletion of the GST-C domain was carried out. The truncated protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The molecular weight of truncated AMS3 lipase was approximately ~45 kDa. The number of truncated AMS3 lipase purification folds was higher than native lipase. Various mono and divalent metal ions increased the activity of the AMS3 lipase. The truncated AMS3 lipase demonstrated a similarly broad temperature range, with the pH profile exhibiting higher activity under alkaline conditions. The purified lipase showed a substrate preference for a long carbon chain substrate. In addition, the enzyme activity in organic solvents was enhanced, especially for toluene, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), chloroform and xylene. Molecular simulation revealed that the truncated lipase had increased structural compactness and rigidity as compared to native lipase. Removal of the N terminal GST-C generally improved the lipase biochemical characteristics. This enzyme may be utilized for industrial purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  9. V K, Neela VK
    Virulence, 2020 12;11(1):104-112.
    PMID: 31957553 DOI: 10.1080/21505594.2020.1713649
    This study investigates the twitching ability of 28 clinical and five environmental strains of S. maltophilia grown under iron-depleted condition through in-silico, phenotypic and proteomics approaches. Rapid Annotations using Subsystem Technology (RAST) analysis revealed the presence of 21 targets of type IV pilus shared across S. maltophilia strains K279a, R551-3, D457 and JV3. The macroscopic twitching assay showed that only clinical isolates produced a zone of twitching with a mean of 22.00 mm under normal and 25.00 mm under iron-depleted conditions. (p = 0.002). Environmental isolates did not show any significant twitching activity in both conditions tested. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (ITRAQ) analysis showed altered expression of twitching motility protein PilT (99.08-fold change), flagellar biosynthesis protein FliC (20.14-fold change), and fimbrial protein (0.70-fold change) in response to iron-depleted condition. Most of the strains that have the ability to twitch under the normal condition, exhibit enhanced twitching during iron limitation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  10. Jabeen S, Yap HY, Abdullah FFJ, Zakaria Z, Isa NM, Tan YC, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2019 01 25;10(2).
    PMID: 30691021 DOI: 10.3390/genes10020081
    Although more than 100 genome sequences of Pasteurella multocida are available, comprehensive and complete genome sequence analysis is limited. This study describes the analysis of complete genome sequence and pathogenomics of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1. The genome of PMTB2.1 has 2176 genes with more than 40 coding sequences associated with iron regulation and 140 virulence genes including the complete tad locus. The tad locus includes several previously uncharacterized genes such as flp2, rcpC and tadV genes. A transposable phage resembling to Mu phages was identified in P. multocida that has not been identified in any other serotype yet. The multi-locus sequence typing analysis assigned the PMTB2.1 genome sequence as type ST101, while the comparative genome analysis showed that PMTB2.1 is closely related to other P. multocida strains with the genomic distance of less than 0.13. The expression profiling of iron regulating-genes of PMTB2.1 was characterized under iron-limited environment. Results showed significant changes in the expression profiles of iron-regulating genes (p < 0.05) whereas the highest expression of fecE gene (281 fold) at 30 min suggests utilization of the outer-membrane proteins system in iron acquisition at an early stage of growth. This study showed the phylogenomic relatedness of P. multocida and improved annotation of important genes and functional characterization of iron-regulating genes of importance to the bacterial growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  11. Torres M, Hong KW, Chong TM, Reina JC, Chan KG, Dessaux Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 02 04;9(1):1215.
    PMID: 30718637 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-37720-2
    The Alteromonas stellipolaris strains PQQ-42 and PQQ-44, previously isolated from a fish hatchery, have been selected on the basis of their strong quorum quenching (QQ) activity, as well as their ability to reduce Vibrio-induced mortality on the coral Oculina patagonica. In this study, the genome sequences of both strains were determined and analyzed in order to identify the mechanism responsible for QQ activity. Both PQQ-42 and PQQ-44 were found to degrade a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS signals, possibly due to the presence of an aac gene which encodes an AHL amidohydrolase. In addition, the different colony morphologies exhibited by the strains could be related to the differences observed in genes encoding cell wall biosynthesis and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The PQQ-42 strain produces more EPS (0.36 g l-1) than the PQQ-44 strain (0.15 g l-1), whose chemical compositions also differ. Remarkably, PQQ-44 EPS contains large amounts of fucose, a sugar used in high-value biotechnological applications. Furthermore, the genome of strain PQQ-42 contained a large non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) cluster with a previously unknown genetic structure. The synthesis of enzymes and other bioactive compounds were also identified, indicating that PQQ-42 and PQQ-44 could have biotechnological applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  12. BangaSingh KK, Nisha M, Lau HY, Ravichandran M, Salleh MZ
    Microb Pathog, 2016 Feb;91:123-8.
    PMID: 26706344 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.12.004
    Virulence of Shigella is attributed to the genes presence in chromosome or in the megaplasmid. The apy gene which is located in the megaplasmid of Shigella species encodes for apyrase enzyme, a pathogenesis-associated enzyme causing mitochondrial damage and host cell death. In this study we constructed an apy mutant of Shigella flexneri by insertional activation using a kanamycin resistant gene cassette. The wild type apy gene of S. flexneri 2a was PCR amplified, cloned and mutated with insertion of kanamycin resistant gene cassette (aphA). The mutated construct (apy: aphA) was subcloned into a conjugative suicidal vector (pWM91) at the unique Sma1 and Sac1 sites. The mutation of the wild apy gene in the construct was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The mutated construct was introduced into wild type S. flexneri 2a by conjugation with Escherichia coli. After undergoing homologous recombination, the wild apy gene was deleted from the construct using the sucrose selection method. Non-functional activity of the apyrase enzyme in the constructed strain by colorimetric test indicated the successful mutation of the apyrase enzyme. This strain with mutated apy gene was evaluated for its protective efficacy using the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. The strain was Sereny negative and it elicited a significant protection following challenge with wild S. flexneri strain. This apy mutant strain will form a base for the development of a vaccine target for shigellosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  13. Lee YV, Wahab HA, Choong YS
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:895453.
    PMID: 25649791 DOI: 10.1155/2015/895453
    Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is the first enzyme involved in glyoxylate cycle. Many plants and microorganisms are relying on glyoxylate cycle enzymes to survive upon downregulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In fact, ICL is a potential drug target for MTB in dormancy. With the urge for new antitubercular drug to overcome tuberculosis treat such as multidrug resistant strain and HIV-coinfection, the pace of drug discovery has to be increased. There are many approaches to discovering potential inhibitor for MTB ICL and we hereby review the updated list of them. The potential inhibitors can be either a natural compound or synthetic compound. Moreover, these compounds are not necessary to be discovered only from MTB ICL, as it can also be discovered by a non-MTB ICL. Our review is categorized into four sections, namely, (a) MTB ICL with natural compounds; (b) MTB ICL with synthetic compounds; (c) non-MTB ICL with natural compounds; and (d) non-MTB ICL with synthetic compounds. Each of the approaches is capable of overcoming different challenges of inhibitor discovery. We hope that this paper will benefit the discovery of better inhibitor for ICL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  14. Nallapan Maniyam M, Sjahrir F, Latif Ibrahim A, Cass AE
    PMID: 25723061 DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2015.987524
    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  15. Tan CH, Show PL, Ooi CW, Ng EP, Lan JC, Ling TC
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Jan;10(1):31-44.
    PMID: 25273633 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400301
    Microbial lipases are popular biocatalysts due to their ability to catalyse diverse reactions such as hydrolysis, esterification, and acidolysis. Lipases function efficiently on various substrates in aqueous and non-aqueous media. Lipases are chemo-, regio-, and enantio-specific, and are useful in various industries, including those manufacturing food, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. A large number of lipases from fungal and bacterial sources have been isolated and purified to homogeneity. This success is attributed to the development of both conventional and novel purification techniques. This review highlights the use of these techniques in lipase purification, including conventional techniques such as: (i) ammonium sulphate fractionation; (ii) ion-exchange; (iii) gel filtration and affinity chromatography; as well as novel techniques such as (iv) reverse micellar system; (v) membrane processes; (vi) immunopurification; (vi) aqueous two-phase system; and (vii) aqueous two-phase floatation. A summary of the purification schemes for various bacterial and fungal lipases are also provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  16. Aljuboori AH, Uemura Y, Osman NB, Yusup S
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Nov;171:66-70.
    PMID: 25189510 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.08.038
    This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60 h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35 °C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  17. Choi SB, Lew LC, Hor KC, Liong MT
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2014 May;173(1):129-42.
    PMID: 24648139 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-014-0822-5
    This study aimed at optimizing the production of hyaluronic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1231 using response surface methodology and evaluating the effects of divalent metal ions along the production pathway using molecular docking. Among different divalent metal ions that were screened, only iron (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  18. Lew LC, Choi SB, Tan PL, Liong MT
    J Appl Microbiol, 2014 Mar;116(3):644-53.
    PMID: 24267975 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12399
    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+) on lactic acid production using response surface methodology and to further study their effects on interactions between the enzymes and substrates along the hexose monophosphate pathway using a molecular modelling approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
  19. Barbour A, Philip K, Muniandy S
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e77751.
    PMID: 24147072 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077751
    BACKGROUND: Lantibiotics are small lanthionine-containing bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. Salivaricin 9 is a newly discovered lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius. In this study we present the mechanism of action of salivaricin 9 and some of its properties. Also we developed new methods to produce and purify the lantibiotic from strain NU10.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivaricin 9 was found to be auto-regulated when an induction assay was applied and this finding was used to develop a successful salivaricin 9 production system in liquid medium. A combination of XAD-16 and cation exchange chromatography was used to purify the secondary metabolite which was shown to have a molecular weight of approximately 3000 Da by SDS-PAGE. MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated the presence of salivaricin 9, a 2560 Da lantibiotic. Salivaricin 9 is a bactericidal molecule targeting the cytoplasmic membrane of sensitive cells. The membrane permeabilization assay showed that salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane and induced pore formation which resulted in cell death. The morphological changes of test bacterial strains incubated with salivaricin 9 were visualized using Scanning Electron Microscopy which confirmed a pore forming mechanism of inhibition. Salivaricin 9 retained biological stability when exposed to high temperature (90-100°C) and stayed bioactive at pH ranging 2 to 10. When treated with proteinase K or peptidase, salivaricin 9 lost all antimicrobial activity, while it remained active when treated with lyticase, catalase and certain detergents.

    CONCLUSION: The mechanism of antimicrobial action of a newly discovered lantibiotic salivaricin 9 was elucidated in this study. Salivaricin 9 penetrated the cytoplasmic membrane of its targeted cells and induced pore formation. This project has given new insights on lantibiotic peptides produced by S. salivarius isolated from the oral cavities of Malaysian subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism*
  20. Kunasundari B, Murugaiyah V, Kaur G, Maurer FH, Sudesh K
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e78528.
    PMID: 24205250 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078528
    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links