METHODS: Therefore, an inventory surveillance of the ESBL-Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolates responsible for infections in Malaysian hospitals was conducted. Additionally, the in vitro efficacy of flomoxef and other established antibiotics against ESBL-EC was evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 127 non-repetitive ESBL-EC strains isolated from clinical samples were collected during a multicentre study performed in five representative Malaysian hospitals. Of all the isolates, 33.9% were isolated from surgical site infections and 85.8% were hospital-acquired infections. High rates of resistance to cefotaxime (100%), cefepime (100%), aztreonam (100%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100%) were observed based on the broth microdilution test. Carbapenems remained the most effective antibiotics against the ESBL-EC, followed by flomoxef. Antibiotic resistance genes were identified by PCR. The blaCTX-M-1 was the most prevalent ESBL gene, with 28 isolates (22%) harbouring blaCTX-M-1 only, 27 isolates (21.3%) co-harbouring blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM, and ten isolates (7.9%) co-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, blaTEM and blaSHV. A generalised linear model showed significant antibacterial activity of imipenem against different types of infection. Besides carbapenems, this study also demonstrated a satisfactory antibacterial activity of flomoxef (81.9%) on ESBL-EC, regardless of the types of ESBL genes.