Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Heng MP, Sim KS, Tan KW
    J Inorg Biochem, 2020 07;208:111097.
    PMID: 32438269 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2020.111097
    Two new Schiff base ligands (TE and TF) were prepared from conjugation of testosterone with 4-(4-ethylphenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide and 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide, respectively. Their nickel (NE and NF) and zinc (ZE and ZF) complexes were reported. X-ray crystallography revealed a distorted square planar geometry was adopted by NE. The compounds demonstrated excellent selectivity towards the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 despite their weak preferences towards the prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP). Against HCT 116, all these compounds were able to arrest cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induce apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent (TE, NE, and TF) and extrinsic apoptotic pathway (ZE, NF, and ZF). Moreover, only ZE was able to act as topoisomease I poison and halt its enzymatic reactions although all compounds presented excellent affinity towards DNA.
  2. Chin LF, Kong SM, Seng HL, Khoo KS, Vikneswaran R, Teoh SG, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2011 Mar;105(3):339-47.
    PMID: 21421121 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2010.11.018
    The synthesis and characterization of two cobalt(II) complexes, Co(phen)(ma)Cl 1 and Co(ma)(2)(phen) 2, (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, ma(-)=maltolate or 2-methyl-4-oxo-4H-pyran-3-olate) are reported herein. The complexes have been characterized by FTIR, CHN analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, conductivity measurement and X-ray crystallography. The number of chelated maltolate ligands seems to influence their DNA recognition, topoisomerase I inhibition and antiproliferative properties.
  3. Hussein MZ, Azmin WH, Mustafa M, Yahaya AH
    J Inorg Biochem, 2009 Aug;103(8):1145-50.
    PMID: 19577306 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.05.016
    Currently the development of green chemistry approach with the use of biomaterial-based activities of microbial cells in the synthesis of various nanostructures has attracted a great attention. In this study, we report on the use of bacterium, Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles with raspberry- and plate-like structures through a simple thermal decomposition of zinc acetate by maintaining the original pH of the reaction mixtures. Possible mechanism on the formation of the nanostructures is proposed based on the surface chemistry and biochemistry processes involved organic-inorganic interactions between zinc oxide and the microbial cells.
  4. Seng HL, Ong HK, Rahman RN, Yamin BM, Tiekink ER, Tan KW, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2008 Nov;102(11):1997-2011.
    PMID: 18778856 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.07.015
    The binding selectivity of the M(phen)(edda) (M=Cu, Co, Ni, Zn; phen=1,10-phenanthroline, edda=ethylenediaminediacetic acid) complexes towards ds(CG)(6), ds(AT)(6) and ds(CGCGAATTCGCG) B-form oligonucleotide duplexes were studied by CD spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The binding mode is intercalation and there is selectivity towards AT-sequence and stacking preference for A/A parallel or diagonal adjacent base steps in their intercalation. The nucleolytic properties of these complexes were investigated and the factors affecting the extent of cleavage were determined to be: concentration of complex, the nature of metal(II) ion, type of buffer, pH of buffer, incubation time, incubation temperature, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid as exogenous reagents. The fluorescence property of these complexes and its origin were also investigated. The crystal structure of the Zn(phen)(edda) complex is reported in which the zinc atom displays a distorted trans-N(4)O(2) octahedral geometry; the crystal packing features double layers of complex molecules held together by extensive hydrogen bonding that inter-digitate with adjacent double layers via pi...pi interactions between 1,10-phenanthroline residues. The structure is compared with that of the recently described copper(II) analogue and, with the latter, included in molecular modeling.
  5. Chen BJ, Jamaludin NS, Khoo CH, See TH, Sim JH, Cheah YK, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2016 10;163:68-80.
    PMID: 27529597 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.08.002
    Four compounds, R3PAu[S2CN(CH2CH2OH)2], R=Ph (1) and cyclohexyl (2), and Et3PAuS2CNRꞌ2, Rꞌ=Rꞌ=Et (3) and Rꞌ2=(CH2)4(4), have been evaluated for antibacterial activity against a panel of 24 Gram positive (8) and Gram negative (16) bacteria. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) scores, compounds 1 and 2 were shown to be specifically potent against Gram positive bacteria whereas compounds 3 and, to a lesser extent, 4 exhibited broad range activity. All four compounds were active against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time kill assays revealed the compounds to exhibit both time- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics against susceptible bacteria. Each compound was bactericidal against one or more bacteria with 3 being especially potent after 8h exposure; compounds 1 and 3 were bactericidal against MRSA. Compound 3 was the most effective bactericide across the series especially toward B. subtilis, S. saprophyticus, A. hydrophila, P. vulgaris, and V. parahaemolyticus. This study demonstrates the potential of this class of compounds as antibacterial agents, either broad range or against specific bacteria.
  6. Basu Baul TS, Dutta D, Duthie A, Prasad R, Rana NK, Koch B, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2017 08;173:79-92.
    PMID: 28505480 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.04.020
    The cytotoxic potency of a series of triphenyltin(IV) compounds of general composition [Ph3Sn(Ln)] (1-6) has been probed in vitro employing MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer) and HeLa (human cervical cancer) cell lines, where Ln=L1-3; isomeric 2/3/4-{(E)-2-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]diazenyl}benzoates and L4-6are their corresponding isoelectronic imino analogues 2/3/4-[(E)-{[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene}amino]benzoates. Compounds 1-6 have been characterized by elemental analysis and their spectroscopic properties were studied using IR and NMR (1H,13C,119Sn) techniques. The molecular structures of a pro-ligand 2-[(E)-{[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]methylidene}amino]benzoic acid (HL4) and two representative molecules, Ph3Sn(L2) 2 and Ph3Sn(L5) 5, have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Structural analyses of 2 and 5 revealed distorted tetrahedral geometries within C3O donor sets owing to monodentate modes of coordination of the respective carboxylate ligands, close intramolecular Sn…O(carbonyl) interactions notwithstanding. Cytotoxic studies in vitro in MDA-MB-231 and HeLa cell lines revealed high activity, in sub-micromolar range, for all investigated compounds. Among these, 1 and 3 exhibited potent cytotoxicity most effectively towards MDA-MB-231 cells with a IC50value of 1.19 and 1.44μM, respectively, whereas 5 showed remarkable activity towards HeLa cells with a IC50value of 0.88μM, yet the series of compounds had minimal cytotoxic effect on normal HEK 293 (human embryonic kidney) cell line. The underlying investigation suggested that the compounds exert potent antitumor effect by elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and cause delay in cell cycle by inhibiting cells at G2/M phase. The results presented herein suggest further development of this class of triphenyltin(IV) compounds-based drugs as potential anti-cancer therapies should be pursued.
  7. Ooi KK, Yeo CI, Mahandaran T, Ang KP, Akim AM, Cheah YK, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2017 01;166:173-181.
    PMID: 27865929 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.11.008
    Phosphanegold(I) thiolates, Ph3PAu[SC(OR)=NPh], R=Me (1), Et (2) and iPr (3), were previously shown to be significantly cytotoxic toward HT-29 cancer cells and to induce cell death by both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways whereby 1 activated the p73 gene, and each of 2 and 3 activated p53; 2 also caused apoptotic cell death via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Apoptosis pathways have been further evaluated by mitochondrial cytochrome c measurements and annexin V screening, confirming apoptotic pathways of cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed the majority of treated HT-29 cells were arrested at the G2/M checkpoint after 24h; results of both assays were confirmed by changes in populations of relevant genes (PCR array analysis). Cell invasion studies showed inhibition of metastasis through Matrigel™ matrix to 17-22% cf. untreated cells. LC50values were determined in zebrafish (8.36, 8.17, and 7.64μM for 1-3). Finally, the zebrafish tolerated doses of 1 and 2 up to 0.625μM, and 3 was tolerated at even higher doses of up to 1.25μM.
  8. Selvarajoo PD, Haque RA, Haziz UFM, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Razali MR
    J Inorg Biochem, 2017 10;175:232-238.
    PMID: 28800547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.07.030
    New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
  9. Tan YJ, Tan YS, Yeo CI, Chew J, Tiekink ERT
    J Inorg Biochem, 2019 03;192:107-118.
    PMID: 30640150 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2018.12.017
    Four binuclear phosphanesilver(I) dithiocarbamates, {cyclohexyl3PAg(S2CNRR')}2 for R = R' = Et (1), CH2CH2 (2), CH2CH2OH (3) and R = Me, R' = CH2CH2OH (4) have been synthesised and characterised by spectroscopy and crystallography, and feature tri-connective, μ2-bridging dithiocarbamate ligands and distorted tetrahedral geometries based on PS3 donor sets. The compounds were evaluated for anti-bacterial activity against a total of 12 clinically important pathogens. Based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cell viability tests (human embryonic kidney cells, HEK 293), 1-4 are specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria while demonstrating low toxicity; 3 and 4 are active against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Across the series, 4 was most effective and was more active than the standard anti-biotic chloramphenicol. Time kill assays reveal 1-4 to exhibit both time- and concentration-dependent pharmacokinetics against susceptible bacteria. Compound 4 demonstrates rapid (within 2 h) bactericidal activity at 1 and 2 × MIC to reach a maximum decrease of 5.2 log10 CFU/mL against S. aureus (MRSA).
  10. Ng CH, Chan CW, Lai JW, Ooi IH, Chong KV, Maah MJ, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2016 07;160:1-11.
    PMID: 27105312 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.04.003
    Like chiral organic drugs, the chemical and biological properties of metal complexes can be dependent on chirality. Two pairs of [Cu(phen)(ala)(H2O)]X·xH2O (phen=1.10-phenanthroline: X=NO3(-); ala: l-alanine (l-ala), 1 and d-alanine (d-ala) 2; and (X=Cl(-); ala: l-ala, 3 and d-ala, 4) complex salts (x=number of lattice water molecules) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of 3 has been determined. The same pair of enantiomeric species, viz. [Cu(phen)(l-ala)(H2O)](+) and [Cu(phen)(d-ala)(H2O)](+), have been identified to be present in the aqueous solutions of both 1 and 3, and in those of both 2 and 4 respectively. Both 3 and 4 bind more strongly to ds(AT)6 than ds(CG)6. There is no or insignificant effect of the chirality of 3 and 4 on the production of hydroxyl radicals, binding to deoxyribonucleic acid from calf thymus (CT-DNA), ds(CG)6, G-quadruplex and 17-base pair duplex, and inhibition of both topoisomerase I and proteasome. Among the three proteasome proteolytic sites, the trypsin-like site is inhibited most strongly by these complexes. However, the chirality of 3 and 4 does affect the number of restriction enzymes inhibited, and their binding constants towards ds(AT)6 and serum albumin.
  11. Lee SK, Tan KW, Ng SW
    J Inorg Biochem, 2016 06;159:14-21.
    PMID: 26901628 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.02.010
    Three transition metal derivatives (Zn, Cu, and Ni) of 2-[2-bromoethyliminomethyl]-4-[ethoxymethyl]phenol (L) were synthesized by the reaction of the metal salts with the Schiff base ligand in one pot. In the crystal structure of [Zn(L)Br], the Schiff base ligand binds to the metal center through its phenolate oxygen and imine nitrogen, and adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry. These compounds were found to inhibit topoisomerase I (topo I) activity, induce DNA cleavage and show DNA binding activity. Moreover, these compounds were found to be cytotoxic towards several cancer cell lines (A2780, MCF-7, HT29, HepG2, A549, PC3, LNCaP) and prevent metastasis of PC3. Collectively, Cu(II) complex 2 shows superior activity relative to its Zn(II) and Ni(II) analogs.
  12. George GN, Gailer J, Ponomarenko O, La Porte PF, Strait K, Alauddin M, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2016 05;158:24-29.
    PMID: 26883676 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2016.01.022
    Certain arsenic and selenium compounds show a remarkable mutual cancelation of toxicities, where a lethal dose of one can be voided by an equimolar and otherwise lethal dose of the other. It is now well established that the molecular basis of this antagonism is the formation and biliary excretion of seleno bis-(S-glutathionyl) arsinium anion [(GS)2AsSe](-). Previous work has definitively demonstrated the presence of [(GS)2AsSe](-) in rabbit bile, but only in the presence of other arsenic and selenium species. Rabbits have a gall bladder, which concentrates bile and lowers its pH; it seems likely that this may be responsible for the breakdown of biliary [(GS)2AsSe](-). Since rats have no gall bladder, the bile proceeds directly through the bile duct from the hepatobiliary tree. In the present work we have shown that the primary product of biliary co-excretion of arsenic and selenium in rats is [(GS)2AsSe](-), with essentially 100% of the arsenic and selenium present as this species. The chemical plausibility of the X-ray absorption spectroscopy-derived structural conclusions of this novel arsenic and selenium co-excretion product is supported by density functional theory calculations. These results establish the biomolecular basis to further explore the use of selenium dietary supplements as a possible palliative for chronic low-level arsenic poisoning of human populations.
  13. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
  14. Ishak DH, Ooi KK, Ang KP, Akim AM, Cheah YK, Nordin N, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2014 Jan;130:38-51.
    PMID: 24176918 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.09.018
    The compound with R=CH2CH3 in Bi(S2CNR2)3 (1) is highly cytotoxic against a range of human carcinoma, whereas that with R=CH2CH2OH (2) is considerably less so. Both 1 and 2 induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells with some evidence for necrosis induced by 2. Based on DNA fragmentation, caspase activities and human apoptosis PCR-array analysis, both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis have been shown to occur. While both compounds activate mitochondrial and FAS apoptotic pathways, compound 1 was also found to induce another death receptor-dependent pathway by induction of CD40, CD40L and TNF-R1 (p55). Further, 1 highly expressed DAPK1, a tumour suppressor, with concomitant down-regulation of XIAP and NF-κB. Cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases correlates with the inhibition of the growth of HepG2 cells. The cell invasion rate of 2 is 10-fold higher than that of 1, a finding correlated with the down-regulation of survivin and XIAP expression by 1. Compounds 1 and 2 interact with DNA through different binding motifs with 1 interacting with AT- or TA-specific sites followed by inhibition of restriction enzyme digestion; 2 did not interfere with any of the studied restriction enzymes.
  15. Yeo CI, Ooi KK, Akim AM, Ang KP, Fairuz ZA, Halim SN, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2013 Oct;127:24-38.
    PMID: 23850666 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2013.05.011
    The Ph3PAu[SC(OR)=NPh], R=Me (1), Et (2) and iPr (3), compounds are significantly cytotoxic to the HT-29 cancer cell line with 1 being the most active. Based on human apoptosis PCR-array analysis, caspase activities, DNA fragmentation, cell apoptotic assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements and human topoisomerase I inhibition, induction of apoptosis is demonstrated and both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis have been shown to occur. Compound 1 activates the p73 gene, whereas each of 2 and 3 activates the p53 gene. An additional apoptotic mechanism is exhibited by 2, that is, via the JNK/MAP pathway.
  16. Tan YS, Ooi KK, Ang KP, Akim AM, Cheah YK, Halim SN, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 Sep;150:48-62.
    PMID: 26086852 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.06.009
    In the solid state each of three binuclear zinc dithiocarbamates bearing hydroxyethyl groups, {Zn[S2CN(R)CH2CH2OH]2}2 for R = iPr (1), CH2CH2OH (2), and Me (3), and an all alkyl species, [Zn(S2CNEt2)2]2 (4), features a centrosymmetric {ZnSCS}2 core with a step topology; both 1 and 3 were isolated as monohydrates. All compounds were broadly cytotoxic, specifically against human cancer cell lines compared with normal cells, with greater potency than cisplatin. Notably, some selectivity were indicated with 2 being the most potent against human ovarian carcinoma cells (cisA2780), and 4 being more cytotoxic toward multidrug resistant human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7R), human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29), and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). Based on human apoptosis PCR-array analysis, caspase activities, DNA fragmentation, cell apoptotic assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements and human topoisomerase I inhibition, induction of apoptosis in HT-29 cells is demonstrated via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Compounds 2-4 activate the p53 gene while 1 activates both p53 and p73. Cell cycle arrest at the S and G2/M phases correlates with inhibition of HT-29 cell growth. Cell invasion is also inhibited by 1-4 which is correlated with down-regulation of NF-κB.
  17. Ng CH, Tan TH, Tioh NH, Seng HL, Ahmad M, Ng SW, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2021 07;220:111453.
    PMID: 33895694 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111453
    The cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and maltol (mal) (complexes 1, 2, 3 respectively) were prepared from their respective metal(II) chlorides and were characterized by FT-IR, elemental analysis, UV spectroscopy, molar conductivity, p-nitrosodimethylaniline assay and mass spectrometry. The X-ray structure of a single crystal of the zinc(II) analogue reveals a square pyramidal structure with distinctly shorter apical chloride bond. All complexes were evaluated for their anticancer property on breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and normal cell line MCF-10A, using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and morphological studies. Complex 2 was most potent for 24, 48 and 72 h treatment of cancer cells but it was not selective towards cancer over normal cells. The mechanistic studies of the cobalt(II) complex 1 involved apoptosis assay, cell cycle analysis, dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay, intracellular reactive oxygen species assay and proteasome inhibition assay. Complex 1 induced low apoptosis, generated low level of ROS and did not inhibit proteasome in normal cells. The study of the DNA binding and nucleolytic properties of complexes 1-3 in the absence or presence of H2O2 or sodium ascorbate revealed that only complex 1 was not nucleolytic.
  18. Zafar MN, Butt AM, Chaudhry GE, Perveen F, Nazar MF, Masood S, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2021 11;224:111590.
    PMID: 34507110 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2021.111590
    The bidentate N-(1-Alkylpyridin-4(1H)-ylidene)amide (PYA) pro-ligands [H2LBn][Cl]2 (2), and [H2LMe][TfO]2 (3) were prepared by simple alkylation reactions of the known compound, N,N-di(pyridin-4-yl)oxalamide (H2L, 1). The Pd(II) complexes, [Pd(LBn)2][Cl]2 (4), [Pd(LMe)2][Cl][TfO] (5), Pd(LBn)Cl2 (6) and Pd(LMe)Cl2 (7) were synthesized through reactions between these pro-ligands and suitable Pd(II) substrates in the presence of base. The molecular structures of 3 and 6 were obtained by single crystal X-ray structure determinations. Studies of the experimental and computational DNA binding interactions of the compounds 1-7 revealed that overall 4 and 6 have the largest values for the binding parameters Kb and ΔGbo. The results showed a good correlation with the steric and electronic parameters obtained by quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies against four different cell lines showed that the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, T47D and cervical cancer cell line HeLa had either higher or similar sensitivities towards 4, 6 and 2, respectively, compared to cisplatin. In general, the cytotoxicity of the compounds, represented by IC50 values, decreased in the order 4 > 6 > 2 > 5 > 3 > 1 > 7 in cancer cell lines. Apoptosis contributed significantly to the cytotoxic effects of these anticancer agents as evaluated by apoptosis studies.
  19. Ng XY, Fong KW, Kiew LV, Chung PY, Liew YK, Delsuc N, et al.
    J Inorg Biochem, 2024 Jan;250:112425.
    PMID: 37977020 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2023.112425
    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently emerged as a potential valuable alternative to treat microbial infections. In PDT, singlet oxygen is generated in the presence of photosensitisers and oxygen under light irradiation of a specific wavelength, causing cytotoxic damage to bacteria. This review highlights different generations of photosensitisers and the common characteristics of ideal photosensitisers. It also focuses on the emergence of ruthenium and more specifically on Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes as metal-based photosensitisers used in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Their photochemical and photophysical properties as well as structures are discussed while relating them to their phototoxicity. The use of Ru(II) complexes with recent advancements such as nanoformulations, combinatory therapy and photothermal therapy to improve on previous shortcomings of the complexes are outlined. Future perspectives of these complexes used in two-photon PDT, photoacoustic imaging and sonotherapy are also discussed. This review covers the literature published from 2017 to 2023.
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