Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1500 in total

  1. Toh C, Mohd-Hairul AR, Ain NM, Namasivayam P, Go R, Abdullah NAP, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2017 Nov 02;10(1):554.
    PMID: 29096695 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2872-6
    BACKGROUND: Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP) is commercially valuable for its strong fragrance but little is known regarding the fragrance production and emission sites on the flowers.

    RESULTS: Olfactory perception detected fragrance only from the petals and sepals. Light and Environmental Scanning Electron microscopy analyses on fresh tissues showed distributions of stomata and trichomes concentrated mostly around the edges. These results paralleled the rich starch deposits and intense neutral red stain, indicating strong fragrance and trichomes as potential main fragrance release sites. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) transcriptomic data of adaxial and abaxial layers of the tissues showed monoterpene synthase transcripts specifically linalool and ocimene synthases distributed throughout the tissues. qPCR analyses taken at different time points revealed high levels of linalool and ocimene synthases transcripts in the early morning with maximal level at 4.00 am but remained low throughout daylight hours.

    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the VMP floral anatomy and its fragrance production characteristics, which complemented our previous molecular and biochemical data on VMP, provided additional knowledge on how fragrance and flower morphology are closely intertwined. Further investigation on the mechanisms of fragrance biosynthesis and interaction of potential pollinators would elucidate the evolution of the flower morphology to maximize the reproduction success of this plant.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Profiling/methods*
  2. Harun S, Rohani ER, Ohme-Takagi M, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    J Plant Res, 2021 Mar;134(2):327-339.
    PMID: 33558947 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-021-01257-9
    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are plant secondary metabolites consisting of sulfur and nitrogen, commonly found in Brassicaceae crops, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. These compounds are known for their roles in plant defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens. 'Guilt-by-association' (GBA) approach predicts genes encoding proteins with similar function tend to share gene expression pattern generated from high throughput sequencing data. Recent studies have successfully identified GSL genes using GBA approach, followed by targeted verification of gene expression and metabolite data. Therefore, a GSL co-expression network was constructed using known GSL genes obtained from our in-house database, SuCComBase. DPClusO was used to identify subnetworks of the GSL co-expression network followed by Fisher's exact test leading to the discovery of a potential gene that encodes the ARIA-interacting double AP2-domain protein (ADAP) transcription factor (TF). Further functional analysis was performed using an effective gene silencing system known as CRES-T. By applying CRES-T, ADAP TF gene was fused to a plant-specific EAR-motif repressor domain (SRDX), which suppresses the expression of ADAP target genes. In this study, ADAP was proposed as a negative regulator in aliphatic GSL biosynthesis due to the over-expression of downstream aliphatic GSL genes (UGT74C1 and IPMI1) in ADAP-SRDX line. The significant over-expression of ADAP gene in the ADAP-SRDX line also suggests the behavior of the TF that negatively affects the expression of UGT74C1 and IPMI1 via a feedback mechanism in A. thaliana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  3. Azemi NFH, Misnan R, Keong PB, Yadzir ZHM
    Mol Biol Rep, 2020 Dec;47(12):9765-9777.
    PMID: 33170423 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-020-05966-7
    Tropomyosin, a muscle tissue protein is a major allergen in most of shellfish including mud crab. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) using a stable reference gene is the most sensitive approach to produce accurate relative gene expression that has yet to be demonstrated for allergenic tropomyosin in mud crab species. This study was conducted to identify the suitable reference gene and tropomyosin expression in different body parts of local mud crabs, Scylla olivacea, Scylla paramamosain and Scylla tranquebarica. Myosin, 18S rRNA, GADPH and EF1α were selected as candidate reference genes and their expression was measured in the abdomen, walking leg and cheliped tissues of local Scylla spp. The expression stability was analyzed using the comparative delta-Ct method, BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm then comprehensively ranked by RefFinder algorithm. Findings showed that EF1α was the most suitable reference gene across three mud crab species. Meanwhile, the abdomen, walking leg and cheliped selected their own suitable reference gene either Myosin, 18S rRNA, EF1α or GADPH. Overall, tropomyosin was the highest in S. tranquebarica, whereas the least was in S. paramamosain. Interestingly, tropomyosin was the highest in the abdomen of all mud crab species. This is the first analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR data normalization of tropomyosin expression in mud crab. These results will provide more accurate findings for further gene expression and allergen analysis in Scylla spp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression*
  4. Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Mohd-Elias NA, Aizat-Juhari MA, Goh HH, Dear PH, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(12):e0167958.
    PMID: 27977777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167958
    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Gene Expression Profiling
  5. Lau NS, Foong CP, Kurihara Y, Sudesh K, Matsui M
    PLoS One, 2014;9(1):e86368.
    PMID: 24466058 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086368
    The photosynthetic cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain 6803, is a potential platform for the production of various chemicals and biofuels. In this study, direct photosynthetic production of a biopolymer, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), in genetically engineered Synechocystis sp. achieved as high as 14 wt%. This is the highest production reported in Synechocystis sp. under photoautotrophic cultivation conditions without the addition of a carbon source. The addition of acetate increased PHA accumulation to 41 wt%, and this value is comparable to the highest production obtained with cyanobacteria. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq coupled with real-time PCR was performed to understand the global changes in transcript levels of cells subjected to conditions suitable for photoautotrophic PHA biosynthesis. There was lower expression of most PHA synthesis-related genes in recombinant Synechocystis sp. with higher PHA accumulation suggesting that the concentration of these enzymes is not the limiting factor to achieving high PHA accumulation. In order to cope with the higher PHA production, cells may utilize enhanced photosynthesis to drive the product formation. Results from this study suggest that the total flux of carbon is the possible driving force for the biosynthesis of PHA and the polymerizing enzyme, PHA synthase, is not the only critical factor affecting PHA-synthesis. Knowledge of the regulation or control points of the biopolymer production pathways will facilitate the further use of cyanobacteria for biotechnological applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Gene Expression Profiling*
  6. Looi QH, Amin H, Aini I, Zuki M, Omar AR
    BMC Genomics, 2017 07 03;18(1):504.
    PMID: 28673247 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3861-9
    BACKGROUND: Edible bird's nest (EBN), produced from solidified saliva secretions of specific swiftlet species during the breeding season, is one of the most valuable animal by-products in the world. The composition and medicinal benefits of EBN have been extensively studied, however, genomic and transcriptomic studies of the salivary glands of these birds have not been conducted.

    RESULTS: The study described the transcriptomes of salivary glands from three swiftlet species (28 samples) generated by RNASeq. A total of 14,835 annotated genes and 428 unmapped genes were cataloged. The current study investigated the genes and pathways that are associated with the development of salivary gland and EBN composition. Differential expression and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the expression of CREB3L2 and several signaling pathways involved in salivary gland development, namely, the EGFR, BMP, and MAPK signaling pathways, were up-regulated in swiftlets producing white EBN (Aerodramus fuciphagus) and black EBN (Aerodramus maximus) compared with non-EBN-producing swiftlets (Apus affinis). Furthermore, MGAT, an essential gene for the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), was highly expressed in both white- and black-nest swiftlets compared to non-EBN-producing swiftlets. Interspecies comparison between Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus indicated that the genes involved in N-acetylneuraminic and fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated in Aerodramus fuciphagus, while alanine and aspartate synthesis pathways were up-regulated in Aerodramus maximus. Furthermore, gender-based analysis revealed that N-glycan trimming pathway was significantly up-regulated in male Aerodramus fuciphagus from its natural habitat (cave) compared to their female counterpart.

    CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic analysis of salivary glands of different swiftlet species reveal differential expressions of candidate genes that are involved in salivary gland development and in the biosynthesis of various bioactive compounds found in EBN.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation*; Gene Expression Profiling
  7. Aizat WM, Ismail I, Noor NM
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 11 2;1102:1-9.
    PMID: 30382565 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-98758-3_1
    The central dogma of molecular biology (DNA, RNA, protein and metabolite) has engraved our understanding of genetics in all living organisms. While the concept has been embraced for many decades, the development of high-throughput technologies particularly omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) has revolutionised the field to incorporate big data analysis including bioinformatics and systems biology as well as synthetic biology area. These omics approaches as well as systems and synthetic biology areas are now increasingly popular as seen by the growing numbers of publication throughout the years. Several journals which have published most of these related fields are also listed in this chapter to overview their impact and target journals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Profiling/trends*
  8. Hameed SS, Hassan R, Muhammad FF
    PLoS One, 2017;12(11):e0187371.
    PMID: 29095904 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187371
    In this work, gene expression in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is analyzed with the goal of selecting the most attributed genes and performing classification. The objective was achieved by utilizing a combination of various statistical filters and a wrapper-based geometric binary particle swarm optimization-support vector machine (GBPSO-SVM) algorithm. The utilization of different filters was accentuated by incorporating a mean and median ratio criterion to remove very similar genes. The results showed that the most discriminative genes that were identified in the first and last selection steps included the presence of a repetitive gene (CAPS2), which was assigned as the gene most highly related to ASD risk. The merged gene subset that was selected by the GBPSO-SVM algorithm was able to enhance the classification accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression*
  9. Pinheiro TDM, Rego ECS, Alves GSC, Fonseca FCA, Cotta MG, Antonino JD, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Nov 05;23(21).
    PMID: 36362377 DOI: 10.3390/ijms232113589
    Banana (Musa spp.), which is one of the world's most popular and most traded fruits, is highly susceptible to pests and diseases. Pseudocercospora musae, responsible for Sigatoka leaf spot disease, is a principal fungal pathogen of Musa spp., resulting in serious economic damage to cultivars in the Cavendish subgroup. The aim of this study was to characterize genetic components of the early immune response to P. musae in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4, a resistant wild diploid. Leaf RNA samples were extracted from Calcutta 4 three days after inoculation with fungal conidiospores, with paired-end sequencing conducted in inoculated and non-inoculated controls using lllumina HiSeq 4000 technology. Following mapping to the reference M. acuminata ssp. malaccensis var. Pahang genome, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and expression representation analyzed on the basis of gene ontology enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology and MapMan pathway analysis. Sequence data mapped to 29,757 gene transcript models in the reference Musa genome. A total of 1073 DEGs were identified in pathogen-inoculated cDNA libraries, in comparison to non-inoculated controls, with 32% overexpressed. GO enrichment analysis revealed common assignment to terms that included chitin binding, chitinase activity, pattern binding, oxidoreductase activity and transcription factor (TF) activity. Allocation to KEGG pathways revealed DEGs associated with environmental information processing, signaling, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. With 144 up-regulated DEGs potentially involved in biotic stress response pathways, including genes involved in cell wall reinforcement, PTI responses, TF regulation, phytohormone signaling and secondary metabolism, data demonstrated diverse early-stage defense responses to P. musae. With increased understanding of the defense responses occurring during the incompatible interaction in resistant Calcutta 4, these data are appropriate for the development of effective disease management approaches based on genetic improvement through introgression of candidate genes in superior cultivars.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Gene Expression Profiling
  10. Ling CS, Yin KB, Cun ST, Ling FL
    Mol Med Rep, 2015 Jan;11(1):611-8.
    PMID: 25333818 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2707
    The function of choline kinase (CK) and ethanolamine kinase (EK) is to catalyse the phosphorylation of choline and ethanolamine, respectively, in order to yield phosphocholine (PCho) and phosphoethanolamine (PEtn). A high expression level of PCho, due to elevated CK activity, has previously been associated with malignant transformation. In the present study, a quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the mRNA expression profiles of ck and ek mRNA variants in MCF7 breast, HCT116 colon and HepG2 liver cancer cells. The ck and ek mRNA expression profiles showed that total ckα was expressed most abundantly in the HepG2 cells. The HCT116 cells exhibited the highest ckβ and ek1 mRNA expression levels, whereas the highest ek2α mRNA expression levels were detected in the MCF7 cells. The ckβ variant had higher mRNA expression levels, as compared with total ckα, in both the MCF7 and HCT116 cells. Relatively low ek1 mRNA expression levels were detected, as compared with ek2α in the MCF7 cells; however, this was not observed in the HCT116 and HepG2 cells. Notably, the mRNA expression levels of ckα2 were markedly low, as compared with ckα1, in all three cancer cell lines. The effects of epigenetic modification on ck and ek mRNA expression, by treatment of the cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), were also investigated. The results of the present study showed that the mRNA expression levels of ckα, ckβ and ek2α were affected by TSA. An increase >8-fold was observed in ek2α mRNA expression upon treatment with TSA, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In conclusion, the levels of ck and ek transcript variants in the three cancer cell lines were varied. The effects of TSA treatment on the mRNA expression levels of ck and ek imply that ck and ek mRNA expression may be regulated by epigenetic modification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*; Gene Expression Profiling*
  11. Nakasha JJ, Sinniah UR, Puteh A, Hassan SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:168950.
    PMID: 24688363 DOI: 10.1155/2014/168950
    Tubers of safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum) were immersed in three different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) or humic acid (HA) prior to planting. The highest concentration of GA3 (20 mg L(-1)) and all concentrations of HA (5, 10, and 15%) appeared to hasten tuber sprouting and promote uniform sprouting pattern. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA successfully improved sprouting and mean sprouting time. Safed musli growth and development was improved through the increase in the number of leaves, total leaf area, leaf area index, and total fibrous root length. This directly influenced the number of new tubers formed. The use of 20 mg L(-1) GA3 or 15% HA gave similar response with nonsignificant difference among them. However, due to the cost of production, the result from this study suggests that 15% HA should be used to obtain improved sprouting percentage, homogeneous stand establishment, efficient plant growth and development, and increased yield of safed musli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology*; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/physiology*
  12. Raftari M, Ghafourian S, Bakar FA
    J. Dairy Res., 2013 Nov;80(4):490-5.
    PMID: 24063299 DOI: 10.1017/S0022029913000435
    The dairy industry uses lipase extensively for hydrolysis of milk fat. Lipase is used in the modification of the fatty acid chain length, to enhance the flavours of various chesses. Therefore finding the unlimited source of lipase is a concern of dairy industry. Due to the importance of lipase, this study was an attempt to express the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in Lactococcus lactis. To achieve this, a gene associated with lipase transport was amplified and subcloned in inducible pNZ8148 vector, and subsequently transformed into Lc. lactis NZ9000. The enzyme assay as well as SDS-PAGE and western blotting were carried out to analysis the recombinant lipase expression. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA insert from the clone revealed that the lipase activity corresponded to an open reading frame consisting of 1092 bp coding for a 37·5-kDa size protein. Blue colour colonies on nile blue sulphate agar and sharp band on 37·5-kD size on SDS-PAGE and western blotting results confirm the successful expression of lipase by Lc. lactis. The protein assay also showed high expression, approximately 152·2 μg/ml.h, of lipase by recombinant Lc. lactis. The results indicate that Lc. lactis has high potential to overproduce the recombinant lipase which can be used commercially for industrially purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology*; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology*
  13. Kasim S, Deris S, Othman RM
    Comput Biol Med, 2013 Sep;43(9):1120-33.
    PMID: 23930805 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2013.05.011
    A drastic improvement in the analysis of gene expression has lead to new discoveries in bioinformatics research. In order to analyse the gene expression data, fuzzy clustering algorithms are widely used. However, the resulting analyses from these specific types of algorithms may lead to confusion in hypotheses with regard to the suggestion of dominant function for genes of interest. Besides that, the current fuzzy clustering algorithms do not conduct a thorough analysis of genes with low membership values. Therefore, we present a novel computational framework called the "multi-stage filtering-Clustering Functional Annotation" (msf-CluFA) for clustering gene expression data. The framework consists of four components: fuzzy c-means clustering (msf-CluFA-0), achieving dominant cluster (msf-CluFA-1), improving confidence level (msf-CluFA-2) and combination of msf-CluFA-0, msf-CluFA-1 and msf-CluFA-2 (msf-CluFA-3). By employing double filtering in msf-CluFA-1 and apriori algorithms in msf-CluFA-2, our new framework is capable of determining the dominant clusters and improving the confidence level of genes with lower membership values by means of which the unknown genes can be predicted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal/physiology*; Gene Expression Profiling/methods*
  14. Mohamed Salleh FH, Arif SM, Zainudin S, Firdaus-Raih M
    Comput Biol Chem, 2015 Dec;59 Pt B:3-14.
    PMID: 26278974 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2015.04.012
    A gene regulatory network (GRN) is a large and complex network consisting of interacting elements that, over time, affect each other's state. The dynamics of complex gene regulatory processes are difficult to understand using intuitive approaches alone. To overcome this problem, we propose an algorithm for inferring the regulatory interactions from knock-out data using a Gaussian model combines with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). There are several problems relating to GRN construction that have been outlined in this paper. We demonstrated the ability of our proposed method to (1) predict the presence of regulatory interactions between genes, (2) their directionality and (3) their states (activation or suppression). The algorithm was applied to network sizes of 10 and 50 genes from DREAM3 datasets and network sizes of 10 from DREAM4 datasets. The predicted networks were evaluated based on AUROC and AUPR. We discovered that high false positive values were generated by our GRN prediction methods because the indirect regulations have been wrongly predicted as true relationships. We achieved satisfactory results as the majority of sub-networks achieved AUROC values above 0.5.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation
  15. Thevarajoo S, Selvaratnam C, Chan KG, Goh KM, Chong CS
    Mar Genomics, 2015 Oct;23:49-50.
    PMID: 25957696 DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2015.04.009
    Type strain Vitellibacter vladivostokensis KMM 3516(T) (=NBRC 16718(T)) belongs to the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides. To date, no genomes of the Vitellibacter spp. have been reported, and their metabolic pathways are unknown. This study reports the draft genome sequence of V. vladivostokensis. Moreover, mining of genes associated with proteolytic enzymes was performed to provide insights for further enzyme characterization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/physiology; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/physiology
  16. Tan MS, Tan JW, Chang SW, Yap HJ, Abdul Kareem S, Zain RB
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2482.
    PMID: 27688975 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2482
    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Profiling
  17. Jafarlou M, Baradaran B, Saedi TA, Jafarlou V, Shanehbandi D, Maralani M, et al.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents, 2016 Apr-Jun;30(2):315-21.
    PMID: 27358116
    Gene therapy has become a significant issue in science-related news. The principal concept of gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. Although gene therapy was originally conceived as a way to treat life-threatening disorders (inborn defects, cancers) refractory to conventional treatment, it is now considered for many non–life-threatening conditions, such as those adversely impacting a patient’s quality of life. An extensive range of efficacious vectors, delivery techniques, and approaches for developing gene-based interventions for diseases have evolved in the last decade. The lack of suitable treatment has become a rational basis for extending the scope of gene therapy. The aim of this review is to investigate the general methods by which genes are transferred and to give an overview to clinical applications. Maximizing the potential benefits of gene therapy requires efficient and sustained therapeutic gene expression in target cells, low toxicity, and a high safety profile. Gene therapy has made substantial progress albeit much slower than was initially predicted. This review also describes the basic science associated with many gene therapy vectors and the present progress of gene therapy carried out for various surface disorders and diseases. The conclusion is that, with increased pathobiological understanding and biotechnological improvements, gene therapy will become a standard part of clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression
  18. Rosli R, Amiruddin N, Ab Halim MA, Chan PL, Chan KL, Azizi N, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0194792.
    PMID: 29672525 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194792
    Comparative genomics and transcriptomic analyses were performed on two agronomically important groups of genes from oil palm versus other major crop species and the model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana. The first analysis was of two gene families with key roles in regulation of oil quality and in particular the accumulation of oleic acid, namely stearoyl ACP desaturases (SAD) and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (FAT). In both cases, these were found to be large gene families with complex expression profiles across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages. The detailed classification of the oil palm SAD and FAT genes has enabled the updating of the latest version of the oil palm gene model. The second analysis focused on disease resistance (R) genes in order to elucidate possible candidates for breeding of pathogen tolerance/resistance. Ortholog analysis showed that 141 out of the 210 putative oil palm R genes had homologs in banana and rice. These genes formed 37 clusters with 634 orthologous genes. Classification of the 141 oil palm R genes showed that the genes belong to the Kinase (7), CNL (95), MLO-like (8), RLK (3) and Others (28) categories. The CNL R genes formed eight clusters. Expression data for selected R genes also identified potential candidates for breeding of disease resistance traits. Furthermore, these findings can provide information about the species evolution as well as the identification of agronomically important genes in oil palm and other major crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Gene Expression Profiling*
  19. Vikashini B, Shanthi A, Ghosh Dasgupta M
    Gene, 2018 Nov 15;676:37-46.
    PMID: 30201104 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.07.012
    Casuarina equisetifolia L. is an important multi-purpose, fast growing and widely planted tree species native to tropical and subtropical coastlines of Australia, Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Melanesia, Polynesia and New Caledonia. It is a nitrogen-fixing tree mainly used for charcoal making, construction poles, landscaping, timber, pulp, firewood, windbreaks, shelterbelts, soil erosion and sand dune stabilization. Casuarina wood is presently used for paper and pulp production. Raw material with reduced lignin is highly preferred to increase the pulp yield. Hence, understanding the molecular regulation of wood formation in this tree species is vital for selecting industrially suitable phenotypes for breeding programs. The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied in tree species like Eucalypts, poplars, pines, Picea, Betula and Acacia sp. However, studies on wood formation at molecular level is presently lacking in casuarinas. Hence, in the present study, the transcriptome of the developing secondary tissues of 15 years old Casuarina equiseitfolia subsp. equisetifolia was sequenced, de novo assembled, annotated and mapped to functional pathways. Transcriptome sequencing generated a total of 26,985 transcripts mapped to 31 pathways. Mining of the annotated data identified nine genes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathway and relative expression of the transcripts in four tissues including scale-like leaves, needle-like brachlets, wood and root were documented. The expression of CeCCR1 and CeF5H were found to be significantly high in wood tissues, while maximum expression of CeHCT was documented in stem. Additionally, CeTUBA and CeH2A were identified as the most stable reference transcript for normalization of qRT-PCR data in C. equisetifolia. The present study is the first wood genomic resource in C. equisetifolia, which will be valuable for functional genomics research in this genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics; Gene Expression Profiling/methods
  20. Deng S, Mai Y, Niu J
    Gene, 2019 Mar 20;689:131-140.
    PMID: 30576805 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2018.12.016
    Citrus maxima "seedless" is originally from Malaysia, and now is widely cultivated in Hainan province, China. The essential features of this cultivar are thin skin, green epicarp and seedless at the ripening stage. Here, using C. maxima "seedless" as experimental material, we investigated the physical and inclusion indicators, and found the accumulation of storage compounds during 120-210 DAF leading to inconsistent increase between volume and weight. Component analysis of soluble sugar indicated that arabinose and xylose have a high content in early development of pummelo juice sacs (PJS), whereas fructose, glucose and sucrose show a significant increase during PJS maturation. To clarify a global overview of the gene expressing profiles, the PJSs from four periods (60, 120, 180 and 240 DAF) were selected for comparative transcriptome analysis. The resulting 8275 unigenes showed differential expression during PJS development. Also, the stability of 11 housekeeping genes were evaluated by geNorm method, resulting in a set of five genes (UBC, ACT, OR23, DWA2 and CYP21D) used as control for normalization of gene expression. Based on transcriptome data, 5 sucrose synthases (SUSs) and 10 invertases (INVs) were identified to be involved in sucrose degradation. Importantly, SUS4 may be responsible for arabinose and xylose biosynthesis to form the cell wall in early development, while SUS3 and VIN2 may be important in the accumulation of soluble hexose leading to cell expansion through an osmotic-independent pathway in late development. The information provides valuable metabolite and genetic resources in C. maxima "seedless", and is important for achieving high fruit yield and quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; Gene Expression Profiling
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