• 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
Pest Manag. Sci., 2013 Jan;69(1):104-11.
PMID: 22865686 DOI: 10.1002/ps.3371


Pesticides are developed with carriers to improve their physicochemical properties and, accordingly, the bioefficacy of the applied formulation. For foliar-applied herbicide, generally less than 0.1% of the active ingredient reaching the target site could reduce pesticide performance. Recently, a carrier of nanoemulsion consisting of oil, surfactant and water, with a particle size of less than 200 nm, has been shown to enhance drug permeability for skin penetration in pharmaceutical delivery systems. In the present work, the aim was to formulate a water-soluble herbicide, glyphosate isopropylamine (IPA), using a green nanoemulsion system for a biological activity study against the weeds creeping foxglove, slender button weed and buffalo grass.

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