Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 128 in total

  1. Tejo BA, Salleh AB, Pleiss J
    J Mol Model, 2004 Dec;10(5-6):358-66.
    PMID: 15597204
    The effect of organic solvent on the structure and dynamics of proteins was investigated by multiple molecular dynamics simulations (1 ns each) of Candida rugosa lipase in water and in carbon tetrachloride. The choice of solvent had only a minor structural effect. For both solvents the open and the closed conformation of the lipase were near to their experimental X-ray structures (C(alpha) rms deviation 1-1.3 A). However, the solvents had a highly specific effect on the flexibility of solvent-exposed side chains: polar side chains were more flexible in water, but less flexible in organic solvent. In contrast, hydrophobic residues were more flexible in organic solvent, but less flexible in water. As a major effect solvent changed the dynamics of the lid, a mobile element involved in activation of the lipase, which fluctuated as a rigid body about its average position. While in water the deviations were about 1.6 A, organic solvent reduced flexibility to 0.9 A. This increase rigidity was caused by two salt bridges (Lys85-Asp284, Lys75-Asp79) and a stable hydrogen bond (Lys75-Asn 292) in organic solvent. Thus, organic solvents stabilize the lid but render the side chains in the hydrophobic substrate-binding site more mobile. [figure: see text]. Superimposition of open (black, PDB entry 1CRL) and closed (gray, PDB entry 1TRH) conformers of C. rugosa lipase. The mobile lid is indicated.
  2. Awang R, Basri M, Ahmad S, Salleh AB
    Biotechnol Lett, 2004 Jan;26(1):11-4.
    PMID: 15005144
    The esterification of palm-based 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and 1-octanol in hexane as catalyzed by lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (Lipozyme IM) followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The esterification reaction follows a Ping-Pong, Bi-Bi mechanism. The maximum rate was estimated to be 1 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) catalyst in hexane at 50 degrees C, and the Michaelis-Menten constants for DHSA and 1-octanol were 1.3 M and 0.7 M, respectively.
  3. Rahman RN, Zakaria II, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(8):9673-91.
    PMID: 22949824 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13089673
    PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products). These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant's active site.
  4. Karjiban RA, Basri M, Rahman MB, Salleh AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(8):9572-83.
    PMID: 22949816 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13089572
    Palm oil-based esters (POEs) are unsaturated and non-ionic esters with a great potential to act as chemical penetration enhancers and drug carriers for transdermal drug nano-delivery. A ratio of palmitate ester and nonionic Tween80 with and without diclofenac acid was chosen from an experimentally determined phase diagram. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for selected compositions over a period of 15 ns. Both micelles showed a prolate-like shape, while adding the drug produced a more compact micellar structure. Our results proposed that the drug could behave as a co-surfactant in our simulated model.
  5. Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M, Wong CF
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5797-814.
    PMID: 22016627 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095797
    Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation.
  6. Zakaria II, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 Sep;165(2):737-47.
    PMID: 21633820 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9292-1
    Flavonoids are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants shown to exhibit health benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor effects. Thus, due to the importance of this compound, several enzymes involved in the flavonoid pathway have been cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. However, the formation of inclusion bodies has become a major disadvantage of this approach. As an alternative, chalcone synthase from Physcomitrella patens was secreted into the medium using a bacteriocin release protein expression vector. Secretion of P. patens chalcone synthase into the culture media was achieved by co-expression with a psW1 plasmid encoding bacteriocin release protein in E. coli Tuner (DE3) plysS. The optimized conditions, which include the incubation of cells for 20 h with 40 ng/ml mitomycin C at OD(600) induction time of 0.5 was found to be the best condition for chalcone synthase secretion.
  7. Hamzah HH, Yusof NA, Salleh AB, Bakar FA
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(8):7302-13.
    PMID: 22164018 DOI: 10.3390/s110807302
    Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (K(i)) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.
  8. Shariff FM, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(5):2917-34.
    PMID: 21686158 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12052917
    A thermophilic lipolytic bacterium identified as Bacillus sp. L2 via 16S rDNA was previously isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. Bacillus sp. L2 was confirmed to be in Group 5 of bacterial classification, a phylogenically and phenotypically coherent group of thermophilic bacilli displaying very high similarity among their 16S rRNA sequences (98.5-99.2%). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning of L2 lipase gene was conducted by using five different primers. Sequence analysis of the L2 lipase gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 1251 bp that codes for 417 amino acids. The signal peptides consist of 28 amino acids. The mature protein is made of 388 amino acid residues. Recombinant lipase was successfully overexpressed with a 178-fold increase in activity compared to crude native L2 lipase. The recombinant L2 lipase (43.2 kDa) was purified to homogeneity in a single chromatography step. The purified lipase was found to be reactive at a temperature range of 55-80 °C and at a pH of 6-10. The L2 lipase had a melting temperature (Tm) of 59.04 °C when analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy studies. The optimum activity was found to be at 70 °C and pH 9. Lipase L2 was strongly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100%), whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), pepstatin-A, 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol (DTT) inhibited the enzyme by over 40%. The CD spectra of secondary structure analysis showed that the L2 lipase structure contained 38.6% α-helices, 2.2% ß-strands, 23.6% turns and 35.6% random conformations.
  9. Ebrahimpour A, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jul;102(13):6972-81.
    PMID: 21531550 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.03.083
    The mature ARM lipase gene was cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector and over-expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 host. The optimum lipase expression was obtained after 18 h post induction incubation with 1.0mM IPTG, where the lipase activity was approximately 1623-fold higher than wild type. A rapid, high efficient, one-step purification of the His-tagged recombinant lipase was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography with 63.2% recovery and purification factor of 14.6. The purified lipase was characterized as a high active (7092 U mg(-1)), serine-hydrolase, thermostable, organic solvent tolerant, 1,3-specific lipase with a molecular weight of about 44 kDa. The enzyme was a monomer with disulfide bond(s) in its structure, but was not a metalloenzyme. ARM lipase was active in a broad range of temperature and pH with optimum lipolytic activity at pH 8.0 and 65°C. The enzyme retained 50% residual activity at pH 6.0-7.0, 50°C for more than 150 min.
  10. Ashari SE, Mohamad R, Ariff A, Basri M, Salleh AB
    J Oleo Sci, 2009;58(10):503-10.
    PMID: 19745577
    Kojic acid monooleate is a fatty acid derivative of kojic acid which can be widely used as a skin whitening agent in a cosmetic applications. In avoiding any possible harmful effects from chemically synthesized product, the enzymatic synthesis appears to be the best way to satisfy the consumer demand nowadays. The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (lipozyme RMIM) to catalyze the direct esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid was investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable were employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters such as enzyme amount (0.1-0.4 g), temperature (30-60 degrees C), substrate molar ratio (1-4 mmol, kojic acid:oleic acid) and reaction time (24-48 h) on percentage molar conversion to kojic acid monooleate. Analysis of the product using TLC, GC and FTIR showed the presence of kojic acid monooleate. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic reaction were obtained after analysis with backward elimination using 0.17 g of enzyme and 4 mmol of substrate at 52.50 degrees C for 42 h. Under these conditions the esterification percentage was 37.21%. The results demonstrated that response surface methodology can be applied effectively to optimize the lipase-catalysed synthesis of kojic acid monooleate. The optimum conditions can be used to scale up the process.
  11. Abusham RA, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    Microb Cell Fact, 2009 Apr 09;8:20.
    PMID: 19356254 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-8-20
    BACKGROUND: Many researchers have reported on the optimization of protease production; nevertheless, only a few have reported on the optimization of the production of organic solvent-tolerant proteases. Ironically, none has reported on thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease to date. The aim of this study was to isolate the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease and identify the culture conditions which support its production. The bacteria of genus Bacillus are active producers of extra-cellular proteases, and the thermostability of enzyme production by Bacillus species has been well-studied by a number of researchers. In the present study, the Bacillus subtilis strain Rand was isolated from the contaminated soil found in Port Dickson, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: A thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease producer had been identified as Bacillus subtilis strain Rand, based on the 16S rRNA analysis conducted, as well as the morphological characteristics and biochemical properties. The production of the thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease was optimized by varying various physical culture conditions. Inoculation with 5.0% (v/v) of (AB600 = 0.5) inoculum size, in a culture medium (pH 7.0) and incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C with 200 rpm shaking, was the best culture condition which resulted in the maximum growth and production of protease (444.7 U/ml; 4042.4 U/mg). The Rand protease was not only stable in the presence of organic solvents, but it also exhibited a higher activity than in the absence of organic solvent, except for pyridine which inhibited the protease activity. The enzyme retained 100, 99 and 80% of its initial activity, after the heat treatment for 30 min at 50, 55, and 60 degrees C, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Strain Rand has been found to be able to secrete extra-cellular thermostable organic solvent-tolerant protease into the culture medium. The protease exhibited a remarkable stability towards temperature and organic solvent. This unique property makes it attractive and useful to be used in industrial applications.

  12. Leow TC, Rahman RN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Extremophiles, 2007 May;11(3):527-35.
    PMID: 17426920
    A thermoalkaliphilic T1 lipase gene of Geobacillus sp. strain T1 was overexpressed in pGEX vector in the prokaryotic system. Removal of the signal peptide improved protein solubility and promoted the binding of GST moiety to the glutathione-Sepharose column. High-yield purification of T1 lipase was achieved through two-step affinity chromatography with a final specific activity and yield of 958.2 U/mg and 51.5%, respectively. The molecular mass of T1 lipase was determined to be approximately 43 kDa by gel filtration chromatography. T1 lipase had an optimum temperature and pH of 70 degrees C and pH 9, respectively. It was stable up to 65 degrees C with a half-life of 5 h 15 min at pH 9. It was stable in the presence of 1 mM metal ions Na(+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+ ), but inhibited by Cu(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+). Tween 80 significantly enhanced T1 lipase activity. T1 lipase was active towards medium to long chain triacylglycerols (C10-C14) and various natural oils with a marked preference for trilaurin (C12) (triacylglycerol) and sunflower oil (natural oil). Serine and aspartate residues were involved in catalysis, as its activity was strongly inhibited by 5 mM PMSF and 1 mM Pepstatin. The T(m) for T1 lipase was around 72.2 degrees C, as revealed by denatured protein analysis of CD spectra.
  13. Rahman RN, Baharum SN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Microbiol, 2006 Dec;44(6):583-90.
    PMID: 17205035
    In this study, an organic solvent tolerant bacterial strain was isolated. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain S5, and was shown to degrade BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-Benzene, and Xylene). Strain S5 generates an organic solvent-tolerant lipase in the late logarithmic phase of growth. Maximum lipase production was exhibited when peptone was utilized as the sole nitrogen source. Addition of any of the selected carbon sources to the medium resulted in a significant reduction of enzyme production. Lower lipase generation was noted when an inorganic nitrogen source was used as the sole nitrogen source. This bacterium hydrolyzed all tested triglycerides and the highest levels of production were observed when olive oil was used as a natural triglyceride. Basal medium containing Tween 60 enhanced lipase production to the most significant degree. The absence of magnesium ions (Mg2+) in the basal medium was also shown to stimulate lipase production. Meanwhile, an alkaline earth metal ion, Na+, was found to stimulate the production of S5 lipase.
  14. Rahman RN, Ghaza FM, Salleh AB, Basri M
    J Microbiol, 2006 Jun;44(3):354-9.
    PMID: 16820766
    This study examined the capacity of immobilized bacteria to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons. A mixture of hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains was immobilized in alginate and incubated in crude oil-contaminated artificial seawater (ASW). Analysis of hydrocarbon residues following a 30-day incubation period demonstrated that the biodegradation capacity of the microorganisms was not compromised by the immobilization. Removal of n-alkanes was similar in immobilized cells and control cells. To test reusability, the immobilized bacteria were incubated for sequential increments of 30 days. No decline in biodegradation capacity of the immobilized consortium of bacterial cells was noted over its repeated use. We conclude that immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria represent a promising application in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated areas.
  15. Rahman RN, Geok LP, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Mar;96(4):429-36.
    PMID: 15491823
    The physical factors affecting the production of an organic solvent-tolerant protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K was investigated. Growth and protease production were detected from 37 to 45 degrees C with 37 degrees C being the optimum temperature for P. aeruginosa. Maximum enzyme activity was achieved at static conditions with 4.0% (v/v) inoculum. Shifting the culture from stationary to shaking condition decreased the protease production (6.0-10.0% v/v). Extracellular organic solvent-tolerant protease was detected over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. However, the highest yield of protease was observed at pH 7.0. Neutral media increased the protease production compared to acidic or alkaline media.
  16. Basri M, Samsudin S, Ahmad MB, Razak CN, Salleh AB
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 1999 Sep;81(3):205-17.
    PMID: 15304777
    Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized by entrapment on poly(N-vinyl- 2-pyrrolidone-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[VP-co-HEMA]) hydrogel, and divinylbenzene was the crosslinking agent. The immobilized enzymes were used in the esterification reaction of oleic acid and butanol in hexane. The activities of the immobilized enzymes and the leaching ability of the enzyme from the support with respect to the different compositions of the hydrogels were investigated. The thermal, solvent, and storage stability of the immobilized lipases was also determined. Increasing the percentage of composition of VP from 0 to 90, which corresponds to the increase in the hydrophilicity of the hydrogels, increased the activity of the immobilized enzyme. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 90:10 exhibited the highest activity. Lipase immobilized on VP(%):HEMA(%) 50:50 showed the highest thermal, solvent, storage, and operational stability compared to lipase immobilized on other compositions of hydrogels as well as the native lipase.
  17. Rahman RN, Leow TC, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2005 Apr;40(2):411-6.
    PMID: 15766884
    The extracellular production of T1 lipase was performed by co-expression of pJL3 vector encoding bacteriocin release protein in prokaryotic system. Secretory expression was optimized by considering several parameters, including host strains, inducer (IPTG) concentration, media, induction at A(600 nm), temperature, and time of induction. Among the host strains tested, Origami B excreted out 18,100 U/ml of lipase activity into culture medium when induced with 50 microM IPTG for 12 h. The Origami B harboring recombinant plasmid pGEX/T1S and pJL3 vector was chosen for further study. IPTG at 0.05 mM, YT medium, induction at A(600 nm) of 1.25, 30 degrees C, and 32 h of induction time were best condition for T1 lipase secretion with Origami B as a host.
  18. Rahman RN, Baharum SN, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Anal Biochem, 2005 Jun 15;341(2):267-74.
    PMID: 15907872
    An organic solvent-tolerant S5 lipase was purified by affinity chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the lipase was estimated to be 60 kDa with 387 purification fold. The optimal temperature and pH were 45 degrees C and 9.0, respectively. The purified lipase was stable at 45 degrees C and pH 6-9. It exhibited the highest stability in the presence of various organic solvents such as n-dodecane, 1-pentanol, and toluene. Ca2+ and Mg2+ stimulated lipase activity, whereas EDTA had no effect on its activity. The S5 lipase exhibited the highest activity in the presence of palm oil as a natural oil and triolein as a synthetic triglyceride. It showed random positional specificity on the thin-layer chromatography.
  19. Masomian M, Rahman RN, Salleh AB, Basri M
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0149851.
    PMID: 26934700 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149851
    Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+)-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.
  20. Yaacob N, Mohamad Ali MS, Salleh AB, Abdul Rahman NA
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e1751.
    PMID: 26989608 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1751
    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2 expression, showing the highest expression when glucose was depleted and ethanol-acetic acid was increased. Meanwhile, S. cerevisiae showed a constitutive ADH2 expression throughout the fermentation process. Discussion. ADH2 expression in L. fermentati may be subjected to changes in the presence of non-fermentative carbon source. The nucleotide sequence showed that ADH2 transcription could be influenced by other transcription genes of glycolysis oriented due to the lack of specific activation sites for Adr1. Our study suggests that if Adr1 is not capable of promoting LfeADH2 activation, the transcription can be controlled by Rap1 and Sp1 due to their inherent roles. Therefore in future, it is interesting to observe ADH2 gene being highly regulated by these potential transcription factors and functioned as a promoter for yeast under high volume of ethanol and organic acids.
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