Titania nanotubes are gaining prominence in photocatalysis, owing to their excellent physical and chemical properties such as high surface area, excellent photocatalytic activity, and widespread availability. They are easily produced by a simple and effective hydrothermal method under mild temperature and pressure conditions. This paper reviews and analyzes the mechanism of titania nanotube formation by hydrothermal treatment. It further examines the parameters that affect the formation of titania nanotubes, such as starting material, sonication pretreatment, hydrothermal temperature, washing process, and calcination process. Finally, the effects of the presence of dopants on the formation of titania nanotubes are analyzed.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.