Pulsating twin jets mechanism (PTJM) was developed in the present work to study the effect of pulsating twin jets mixing region on the enhancement of heat transfer. Controllable characteristics twin pulsed jets were the main objective of our design. The variable nozzle-nozzle distance was considered to study the effect of two jets interaction at the mixing region. Also, the phase change between the frequencies of twin jets was taken into account to develop PTJM. All of these factors in addition to the ability of producing high velocity pulsed jet led to more appropriate design for a comprehensive study of multijet impingement heat transfer problems. The performance of PTJM was verified by measuring the pulse profile at frequency of 20 Hz, where equal velocity peak of around 64 m/s for both jets was obtained. Moreover, the jet velocity profile at different pulsation frequencies was tested to verify system performance, so the results revealed reasonable velocity profile configuration. Furthermore, the effect of pulsation frequency on surface temperature of flat hot plate in the midpoint between twin jets was studied experimentally. Noticeable enhancement in heat transfer was obtained with the increasing of pulsation frequency.
Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.
The influence of reaction temperature (160-200°C), residence time (45-90min), and liquid-solid ratio (8-16v/w) on oil palm frond (OPF) pre-treated with hot compressed water (HCW) was evaluated using severity factors. Effect of the process parameters studied on pulps composition and digestibility were found to be complex. The results revealed that digestibility could not be predicted merely according to composition. Severity factor was correlated with compositional changes and digestibility with good R-squared values at varied liquid-solid ratios (8-16v/w), but not with overall glucose yield. HCW pretreatment significantly improved the overall glucose yield up to 83.72% with severity of 3.31 and liquid-solid ratio of 8.0 compared to untreated raw OPF which only recorded an overall glucose yield of 30.97%. HCW is therefore an effective method for pretreatment of OPF for glucose recovery.
The Carnot cycle and its deduction of maximum conversion efficiency of heat inputted and outputted isothermally at different temperatures necessitated the construction of isothermal and adiabatic pathways within the cycle that were mechanically "reversible", leading eventually to the Kelvin-Clausius development of the entropy function S with differential dS = dq/T such that [symbol: see text]C dS = 0 where the heat absorption occurs at the isothermal paths of the elementary Carnot cycle. Another required condition is that the heat transfer processes take place infinitely slowly and "reversibly", implying that rates of transfer are not explicitly featured in the theory. The definition of 'heat' as that form of energy that is transferred as a result of a temperature difference suggests that the local mode of transfer of "heat" in the isothermal segments of the pathway implies a Fourier-like heat conduction mechanism which is apparently irreversible, leading to an increase in entropy of the combined reservoirs at either end of the conducting material, and which is deemed reversible mechanically. These paradoxes are circumvented here by first clarifying the terms used before modeling heat transfer as a thermodynamically reversible but mechanically irreversible process and applied to a one dimensional atomic lattice chain of interacting particles subjected to a temperature difference exemplifying Fourier heat conduction. The basis of a "recoverable trajectory" i.e. that which follows a zero entropy trajectory is identified. The Second Law is strictly maintained in this development. A corollary to this zero entropy trajectory is the generalization of the Zeroth law for steady state non-equilibrium systems with varying temperature, and thus to a statement about "equilibrium" in steady state non-thermostatic conditions. An energy transfer rate term is explicitly identified for each particle and agrees quantitatively (and independently) with the rate of heat absorbed at the reservoirs held at different temperatures and located at the two ends of the lattice chain in MD simulations, where all energy terms in the simulation refer to a single particle interacting with its neighbors. These results validate the theoretical model and provides the necessary boundary conditions (for instance with regard to temperature differentials and force fields) that thermodynamical variables must comply with to satisfy the conditions for a recoverable trajectory, and thus determines the solution of the differential and integral equations that are used to model these processes. These developments and results, if fully pursued would imply that not only can the Carnot cycle be viewed as describing a local process of energy-work conversion by a single interacting particle which feature rates of energy transfer and conversion not possible in the classical Carnot development, but that even irreversible local processes might be brought within the scope of this cycle, implying a unified treatment of thermodynamically (i) irreversible (ii) reversible (iii) isothermal and (iv) adiabatic processes by conflating the classically distinct concept of work and heat energy into a single particle interactional process. A resolution to the fundamental and long-standing conjecture of Benofy and Quay concerning the Fourier principle is one consequence of the analysis.
Occurrence of chalkiness in rice is attributed to genetic and environmental factors, especially high temperature (HT). The HT induces heat stress, which in turn compromises many grain qualities, especially transparency. Chalkiness in rice is commonly studied together with other quality traits such as amylose content, gel consistency, and protein storage. In addition to the fundamental QTLs, some other QTLs have been identified which accelerate chalkiness occurrence under HT condition. In this review, some of the relatively stable chalkiness, amylose content, and gel consistency related QTLs have been presented well. Genetically, HT effect on chalkiness is explained by the location of certain chalkiness gene in the vicinity of high-temperature-responsive genes. With regard to stable QTL distribution and availability of potential material resources, there is still feasibility to find out novel stable QTLs related to chalkiness under HT condition. A better understanding of those achievements is essential to develop new rice varieties with a reduced chalky grain percentage. Therefore, we propose the pyramiding of relatively stable and nonallelic QTLs controlling low chalkiness endosperm into adaptable rice varieties as pragmatic approach to mitigate HT effect.
Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
Urban vegetation mapping is critical in many applications, i.e., preserving biodiversity, maintaining ecological balance, and minimizing the urban heat island effect. It is still challenging to extract accurate vegetation covers from aerial imagery using traditional classification approaches, because urban vegetation categories have complex spatial structures and similar spectral properties. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have shown a significant improvement in remote sensing image classification outcomes during the last few years. These methods are promising in this domain, yet unreliable for various reasons, such as the use of irrelevant descriptor features in the building of the models and lack of quality in the labeled image. Explainable AI (XAI) can help us gain insight into these limits and, as a result, adjust the training dataset and model as needed. Thus, in this work, we explain how an explanation model called Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) can be utilized for interpreting the output of the DNN model that is designed for classifying vegetation covers. We want to not only produce high-quality vegetation maps, but also rank the input parameters and select appropriate features for classification. Therefore, we test our method on vegetation mapping from aerial imagery based on spectral and textural features. Texture features can help overcome the limitations of poor spectral resolution in aerial imagery for vegetation mapping. The model was capable of obtaining an overall accuracy (OA) of 94.44% for vegetation cover mapping. The conclusions derived from SHAP plots demonstrate the high contribution of features, such as Hue, Brightness, GLCM_Dissimilarity, GLCM_Homogeneity, and GLCM_Mean to the output of the proposed model for vegetation mapping. Therefore, the study indicates that existing vegetation mapping strategies based only on spectral characteristics are insufficient to appropriately classify vegetation covers.
Partial differential equations involve results of unknown functions when there are multiple independent variables. There is a need for analytical solutions to ensure partial differential equations could be solved accurately. Thus, these partial differential equations could be solved using the right initial and boundaries conditions. In this light, boundary conditions depend on the general solution; the partial differential equations should present particular solutions when paired with varied boundary conditions. This study analysed the use of variable separation to provide an analytical solution of the homogeneous, one-dimensional heat equation. This study is applied to varied boundary conditions to examine the flow attributes of the heat equation. The solution is verified through different boundary conditions: Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed-insulated boundary conditions. the initial value was kept constant despite the varied boundary conditions. There are two significant findings in this study. First, the temperature profile changes are influenced by the boundary conditions, and that the boundary conditions are dependent on the heat equation’s flow attributes.
The effect of radiation on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of a viscous fluid over an exponentially stretching sheet was studied. The governing system of partial differential equations was transformed into ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference method. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics were obtained and discussed. It was found that the local heat transfer rate at the surface decreases with increasing values of the magnetic and radiation parameters.
The heat transfer behaviour of a viscous fluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet driven by a uniform shear in the far field with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The boundary layer equations governing the flow are reduced to ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. Using a numerical technique, these equations are then solved to obtain the temperature distributions and the heat transfer rate at the surface for various values of Prandtl number, stretching/shrinking parameter and convective parameter. Dual solutions are found to exist for the shrinking case, whereas for the stretching case, the solution is unique.
The solar flat plate collector operating under different convective modes has low efficiency for energy conversion. The energy absorbed by the working fluid in the collector system and its heat transfer characteristics vary with solar insolation and mass flow rate. The performance of the system is improved by reducing the losses from the collector. Various passive methods have been devised to aid energy absorption by the working fluid. Also, working fluids are modified using nanoparticles to improve the thermal properties of the fluid. In the present work, simulation and experimental studies are undertaken for pipe flow at constant heat flux boundary condition in the mixed convection mode. The working fluid at low Reynolds number in the mixed laminar flow range is undertaken with water in thermosyphon mode for different inclination angles of the tube. Local and average coefficients are determined experimentally and compared with theoretical values for water-based Al2O3 nanofluids. The results show an enhancement in heat transfer in the experimental range with Rayleigh number at higher inclinations of the collector tube for water and nanofluids.
The aim of the present numerical study is to analyze the conjugate natural convection heat transfer in a differentially heated square enclosure containing a conductive polygon object. The left wall is heated and the right wall is cooled, while the horizontal walls are kept adiabatic. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is applied to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The governing parameters considered are the polygon type, 3 ≤ N ≤ ∞, the horizontal position, 0.25 ≤ X 0 ≤ 0.75, the polygon size, 0 ≤ A ≤ π/16, the thermal conductivity ratio, 0.1 ≤ K r ≤ 10.0, and the Rayleigh number, 10(3) ≤ Ra ≤ 10(6). The critical size of the solid polygon was found exists at low conductivities. The heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the size of the solid polygon, until it reaches its maximum value. Here, the size of the solid polygon is reaches its critical value. Further, beyond this critical size of the solid polygon, will decrease the heat transfer rate.
A numerical simulation model for laminar flow of nanofluids in a pipe with constant heat flux on the wall was built to study the effect of the Reynolds number on convective heat transfer and pressure loss. The investigation was performed for hybrid nanofluids consisting of CuO-Cu nanoparticles and compared with CuO and Cu in which the nanoparticles have a spherical shape with size 50, 50, 50nm respectively. The nanofluids were prepared, following which the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity were measured for a range of temperatures (10 -60°C). The numerical results obtained were compared with the existing well-established correlation. The prediction of the Nusselt number for nanofluids agrees well with the Shah correlation. The comparison of heat transfer coefficients for CuO, Cu and CuO-Cu presented an increase in thermal conductivity of the nanofluid as the convective heat transfer coefficient increased. It was found that the pressure loss increases with an increase in the Reynolds number, nanoparticle density and particle volume fraction. However, the flow demonstrates enhancement in heat transfer which becomes greater with an increase in the Reynolds number for the nanofluid flow.
Dehydroquinase or 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD) reversibly cleaves 3-dehydroquinate to form 3-dehydroshikimate. Here, we describe the functional and structural features of a cold active type II 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase from the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica PI12 (GaDHQD). Functional studies showed that the enzyme was active at low temperatures (10-30 °C), but displayed maximal activity at 40 °C. Yet the enzyme was stable over a wide range of temperatures (10-70 °C) and between pH 6.0-10.0 with an optimum pH of 8.0. Interestingly, the enzyme was highly thermo-tolerant, denaturing only at approximately 84 °C. Three-dimensional structure analyses showed that the G. antarctica dehydroquinase (GaDHQD) possesses psychrophilic features in comparison with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts such as higher numbers of non-polar residues on the surface, lower numbers of arginine and higher numbers of glycine-residues with lower numbers of hydrophobic interactions. On the other hand, GaDHQD shares some traits (i.e. total number of hydrogen bonds, number of proline residues and overall folding) with its mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. Combined, these features contribute synergistically towards the enzyme's ability to function at both low and high temperatures.
The heat and mass transfer on time dependent hydrodynamic squeeze flow of Jeffrey nanofluid across two plates over permeable medium in the slip condition with heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and chemical reaction are investigated. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is examined in the Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Conversion of the governing partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations is conducted via similarity transformation. The dimensionless equations are solved by imposing numerical method of Keller-box. The outputs are compared with previous reported works in the journals for the validation of the present outputs and found in proper agreement. The behavior of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration profiles by varying the pertinent parameters are examined. Findings portray that the acceleration of the velocity profile and the wall shear stress is due to the squeezing of plates. Furthermore, the velocity, temperature and concentration profile decline with boost in Hartmann number and ratio of relaxation to retardation times. It is discovered that the rate of heat transfer and temperature profile increase when viscous dissipation, thermophoresis and heat source/sink rises. In contrast, the increment of thermal radiation reduces the temperature and enhances the heat transfer rate. Besides, the mass transfer rate decelerates for increasing Brownian motion in nanofluid, while it elevates when chemical reaction and thermophoresis increases.
The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis.
In this study, HA is superplastically embedded into Titanium substrate and the sample is subsequently deformed superplastically until 70% deformation degree. The former process is termed as superplastic embedment (SPE) while the later as superplastic deformation (SPD). After the SPE, HA is successfully embedded into the substrate, forming a layer with a thickness of about 249 nm. After the SPD the embedded HA layer thickness decreases to 111 nm. The SPD sample is then immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) to evaluate its biological properties. A newly grown apatite is formed as a result of the immersion and the HA layer thickness increases with immersion time. The cohesion and adhesion strength within the HA coating and coating-substrate interface of the SPD samples before and after immersion in the SBF is evaluated through the nanoscratch test technique. The results indicate that the HA layer after SPD is still strong even though after being exposed in SBF environment for quite some time. The study suggests that the superplastically embedded HA nanolayer is still intact mechanically and functioning appropriately as biological activity base even after the SPD process.
Crystals of 1,6-hexanedioic acid (I) undergo a temperature-dependent reversible phase transition from monoclinic P21/c at a temperature higher than the critical temperature (Tc) 130 K to another monoclinic P21/c at temperature lower than Tc. The phase transition is of first order, involving a discontinuity and a tripling of the b-axis at Tc whereas the other unit cell parameters vary continuously. The transition is described by the phenomenological Landau theory. The crystal structure analyses for data collected at 297(2) K and 120.0(1) K show that there is half of a molecule of (I) in the asymmetric unit at 297(2) K whereas there are one and a half molecules of (I) in the asymmetric unit at 120.0(1) K. At both temperatures, 297(2) and 120.0(1) K, intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds link the molecules of I into infinite 1D chains along [101] direction. However there are significantly more O-H···O hydrogen bonds presented in the 120.0(1) K polymorph, thereby indicating this phase transition is negotiated via hydrogen bonds. The relationship of the conformational changes and hydrogen bonding for these two polymorphs are explained in detail.