Shock is a clinical challenge to neonatal intensivists and pediatricians alike. It occurs in critically ill babies for many reasons, but the main cause is sepsis that kills more than a million newborn
globally every year. This article is designed to help young doctors and trainees have a better understanding of shock in the neonatal period and its management. The paper reviews the basic pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical investigation, management, supportive care, and complications in the common types of shock seen in neonates. Treatment is governed largely by the underlying cause, with the ultimate goal of achieving adequate tissue perfusion with delivery of oxygen and substrates to the cells, and removal of toxic metabolic waste products. Intervention needs to be anticipatory and urgent to prevent progression to uncompensated and irreversible shock respectively. Early recognition and urgent effective management are crucial to successful outcomes.