METHODS: This systematic review was performed conforming to preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) model. Four different databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Medline databases) as well as manual searching were adopted. Relevant studies from January 2000 till September 2021 were retrieved. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) was used to assess the quality of the selected studies.
RESULTS: Out of 755 articles, only 14 which met the eligibility criteria were included. Six studies found that titanium dioxide nanotube (TNT) reduced oxidative stress and promoted osteoblastic activity through its effect on Wnt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) signaling pathways. On the other hand, three studies confirmed that titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) induce oxidative stress, reduce ostegenesis and impair antioxidant defense system as a significant negative correlation was found between decreased SIR3 protein level and increased superoxide (O2 •-). Moreover, five studies proved that titanium implant alloy enhances the generation of ROS and induces cytotoxicity of osteoblast cells via its effect on NOX pathway.
CONCLUSION: TiO2NPs stimulate a wide array of oxidative stress related pathways. Scientific evidence are in favor to support the use of TiO2 nanotube-coated titanium implants to reduce oxidative stress and promote osteogenesis in bone remodeling. To validate the cellular and molecular cross talk in bone remodeling of the present review, well-controlled clinical trials with a large sample size are required.
RESULTS: Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation with the novel strain can potentially improve the biodegradability of landfill leachate. B. salmalaya strain 139SI showed high potential to enhance biological treatment given its maximum NH3-N and COD removal efficiencies. The response surface plot pattern indicated that within 11 days and under optimum conditions (10% v/v inoculant, pH 6, and 35 °C), B. salmalaya strain139SI removed 78% of ammonia nitrogen. At the end of the study, biological and chemical oxygen demands remarkably decreased by 88% and 91.4%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that ammonia ions covered the cell surface of B. salmalaya strain139SI.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, novel resistant Bacillus salmalaya strain139SI significantly reduces the chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N content of landfill leachate. Leachate treatment by B. salmalaya strain 139SI within 11 days.
STUDY DESIGN: Blinded assessments were conducted at 2-3 years corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the Ages and Stages Questionnaire by intention to treat.
RESULTS: Of the 290 children enrolled, 40 could not be contacted and 10 failed to attend appointments. Among the 240 children for whom outcomes at age 2 years were available, 1 child had a lethal congenital anomaly, 1 child had consent for follow-up withdrawn, and 23 children died. The primary outcome, which was available in 238 (82%) of those randomized, occurred in 47 of the 117 (40%) children assigned to initial FiO2 0.21 and in 38 of the 121 (31%) assigned to initial FiO2 1.0 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86-2.5; P = .16). No difference in NDI was found in 215 survivors randomized to FiO2 0.21 vs 1.0 (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.70-2.28; P = .11). In post hoc exploratory analyses in the whole cohort, children with a 5-minute blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) <80% were more likely to die or to have NDI (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.07-3.2; P = .03).
CONCLUSIONS: Initial resuscitation of infants <32 weeks' gestation with initial FiO2 0.21 had no significant effect on death or NDI compared with initial FiO2 1.0. Further evaluation of optimum initial FiO2, including SpO2 targeting, in a large randomized controlled trial is needed.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Network Registry ACTRN 12610001059055 and the National Malaysian Research Registry NMRR-07-685-957.
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