BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015. The COPD questionnaire were distributed among people identified as occupational, environmental, and hygiene experts. Linguistic variable using Likert scale was used by the expert to indicate their expert judgment of each item. Subsequently, the linguistic variable was converted into a triangular fuzzy number. The average score of the fuzzy number will be used to determine whether the item will be removed or retained.
RESULTS: Ten experts were involved in evaluating 26 items. The experts were in agreement with most of the items, with an average fuzzy number range between 0.429 and 0.800. Two items were removed and three items were added, leaving a total 26 items selected for the COPD risk factors questionnaire. The experts were in disagreement with each other for items F10 and F11 where most of the experts claimed that the question is too subjective and based on self-perception only.
CONCLUSION: The fuzzy Delphi method enhanced the accuracy of the questionnaire pertaining to COPD risk factors, and decreased the length of the established tools.
Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries. Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.
Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.
Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary.
PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals.
METHODS: A literature search was conducted from 1989 to 2015 in six databases. Full text, English articles on HIV-infected individuals ≥ 18 years, which used dual X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD, were included. Studies were excluded if the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was without a comparison group, and the BMD/T-score were not reported.
RESULTS: Twenty-one cross sectional and eight longitudinal studies were included. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was significantly higher in both HIV-infected [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4 (95%Cl: 2.0, 2.8) at lumbar spine, 2.6 (95%Cl: 2.2, 3.0) at hip] and ART-treated individuals [OR = 2.8 (95%Cl: 2.0, 3.8) at lumbar spine, 3.4 (95%Cl: 2.5, 4.7) at hip] when compared to controls. PI-treated individuals had an OR of 1.3 (95%Cl: 1.0, 1.7) of developing osteopenia/osteoporosis compared to controls. A higher proportion of tenofovir-treated individuals (52.6%) had lower BMD compared to controls (42.7%), but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.248). No significant difference was found in the percent change of BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip from baseline to follow-up between HIV-infected, PI-treated, tenofovir-treated, and controls. Older age, history of bone fracture, low BMI, low body weight, being Hispanic or Caucasian, low testosterone level, smoking, low CD4 cell count, lipodystrophy, low fat mass, and low lean body mass were associated with low BMD.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was two times more compared to controls. However, evidence concerning bone loss within the first year of HIV infection and ART initiation was preliminary.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance and associated risk factors based on biochemical parameters using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry.
METHODS: The study was conducted at the outpatients cardiology clinic of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from August 2011 to February 2012. Subjects on aspirin therapy were divided into two groups; first-ever coronary event and recurrent coronary event. Aspirin resistance was measured by a Multiplate(®) platelet analyser.
RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (63 male, 11 female), with a mean age of 57.93 ± 74.1years were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups -first-ever coronary event group (n=52) and recurrent coronary event group (n=22). Aspirin resistance was observed in 12 out of 74 (16%) of the study patients, which consisted of 11 patients from the first-ever coronary event group and one patient from the recurrent coronary event group. There were significant correlations between aspirin resistance and age (r = -0.627; p = 0.029), total cholesterol (r = 0.608; p = 0.036) and LDL (r = 0.694; p = 0.012). LDL was the main predictor for area under the curve (AUC) for aspirin resistance. However, there was no association between aspirin resistance and cardiovascular events in both groups in this study.
CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin resistance was observed in 16% of the study population. LDL was the major predictor of aspirin resistance. No association was found in the study between aspirin resistance with recurrent coronary events.
KEYWORDS: Aspirin resistance; Multiplate® platelet analyser; aspirin responsiveness; first-ever coronary event; recurrent coronary event
A cross sectional study was conducted among tea plantation workers in Cameron Highlands from July to December 2006 to study the prevalence of low back pain and factors associated with it. One hundred and six tea plantation field workers participated in the study. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Time motion studies were also conducted for 3 different job categories. The prevalence of back pain experienced throughout their work in the plantation was 81.1% and the prevalence of low
back pain experienced in the past 12 months was 64.2%. Feeling the need to work as fast as possible was a significant predictor of low back pain and increased the risk by 3.5 times, therefore it is suggested that both the management and workers give serious attention to this particular aspect to reduce the incidence of low back pain.
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of the physician-patient discussion intervene in the satisfaction of cardiovascular disease risk patients. Adherence to treatment, provision of continuous care, clinical management of the illness and patients' adjustment are influenced by satisfaction with physician-patient interaction. This study aims to determine the patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and over six months after following prevention counselling, its associations with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors amongst moderately-high risk patients in a primary healthcare clinic in Kelantan, Malaysia.
METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted amongst patients with moderately-high cardiovascular risk. A total of 104 moderately-high risk patients were recruited and underwent structured prevention counselling based on the World Health Organization guideline, and their satisfaction with the doctor-patient interaction was assessed using 'Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11,' the Malay version of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale-21. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit at six months. Descriptive analysis, paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed.
RESULTS: A total of 102 patients responded, giving a response rate of 98.1%. At baseline, 76.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the relation with their doctor, with the favourable domain of distress relief (85.3%) and rapport/confidence (91.2%). The unfavourable domain was interaction outcome, with satisfaction in only 67.6% of the respondents. Between the two visits, changes had occurred in total cholesterol (P = 0.022) and in systolic blood pressure (P risks.
DISCUSSION: The 'Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11' which represents a component of the interpersonal doctor-patient relationship can be used to assess improvements of the medical skills and in medical training to enhance the quality of therapeutic communication.
Despite the rapid advancement of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), adverse events leading to deaths have been frequently reported in patients implanted with LVADs, including bleeding, infection, thromboembolism, neurological dysfunction and hemolysis. Cannulation forms an important component with regards to thrombus formation in assisted patients by varying the intraventricular flow distribution in the left ventricle (LV). To investigate the correlation between LVAD cannula placement and potential for thrombus formation, detailed analysis of the intraventricular flow field was carried out in the present study using a two way fluid structure interaction (FSI), axisymmetric model of a passive LV incorporating an inflow cannula. Three different cannula placements were simulated, with device insertion near the LV apex, penetrating one-fourth and mid-way into the LV long axis. The risk of thrombus formation is assessed by analyzing the intraventricular vorticity distribution and its associated vortex intensity, amount of stagnation flow in the ventricle as well as the level of wall shear stress. Our results show that the one-fourth placement of the cannula into the LV achieves the best performance in reducing the risk of thrombus formation. Compared to cannula placement near the apex, higher vortex intensity is achieved at the one-fourth placement, thus increasing wash out of platelets at the ventricular wall. One-fourth LV penetration produced negligible stagnation flow region near the apical wall region, helping to reduce platelet deposition on the surface of the cannula and the ventricular wall.
The rising epidemic of established modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cigarette smoking, to a large part, are responsible for the clinical events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cerebrovascular events (strokes, CVE). In our National ACS and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) Registries, it has been documented that over 90% of patients have at least one identifiable CVRF.
Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in different populations may vary according to different environments, social customs and habits. This study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among patients with different malignancies and to ascertain the association between common risk factors and disease transmission.
We report a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), a rare multisystem disorder characterized by difficult-to-control asthma, hypereosinophilia and polyneuropathy. We also discuss the Five Factor Score (FFS) risk stratification strategy, which is used to quantitate the extent of the disease and guide treatment strategy.
Ergonomics can be viewed as an approach to reduce injury and illness rates to improve the overall working
conditions for employees by addressing risk factor exposure that may occur during manual tasks. The objective
of this research was to analyze ergonomics risk factors by associating the perception of employer and employees
towards their workplace condition in quarry and mining industry. A Questionnaire on Ergonomics Risk Assessment
was used to determine the comparison level awareness and perception analysis among quarry and mining industry in
Malaysia. The findings of this research prove that the exposure of ergonomics risk factors towards the workers is in
a moderate level with a mean of 3.59 for the overall respondent review about the ergonomics risk among workers at
their workplace. Besides, the most concern in ergonomics is about the awkward posture at work. Some 8.8% of them
agreed and 6.6% of them totally agreed that they were in awkward posture while doing their work. As a conclusion,
assessment of ergonomics in quarry and mining industry will be a platform to provide a safe and healthy working
This study develops a Road Safety Index (RSI) for commercial bus with the aim of determining whether the
proposed index can be beneficial to the stakeholders for the purpose of mitigating road accident and promoting road
safety. Five risk factors which include drivers, Vehicle, Task, Hazard/Risk and Road, where three critical factors out of
these factors, were identified as high contributing factors (Drivers, Vehicle and Road) were selected for the construction
of RSI. Drivers risk perceptions data were collected using survey instrument with sample size (n= 465) to test the
model and the data fits the model perfectly. The main benefits of this approach and the subsequent development of
RSI are: (1) Enable organisations to justify the investment on road safety by providing a measurement and evaluation
mechanism. (2) The index provides a balanced view of the impact of the three critical (DVR) risk factors that the
management can improve upon.
This study is carried out to establish the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) among
the Malaysian workforce population in order to propose some measures to benefit the people at large. Secondary data
from three studies among drivers, clerical workers using visual display terminals (VDT) and fabrication workers were
used to report the prevalence of MSDs and the associated risk factors. The study identified high prevalence of MSDs in
multiple body regions. The MSD occurrence was also significantly associated with psychosocial factors. There is need
for organisations to consider such factors in work design, which will reduce the high prevalence and high financial
implications associated with MSDs among workers.