Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 3267 in total

  1. Kow CS, Ramachandram DS, Hasan SS
    Int J Cardiol, 2023 Apr 15;377:123.
    PMID: 36724830 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2023.01.076
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  2. Sanders P, Kamsani SH, Middeldorp ME
    JACC Clin Electrophysiol, 2022 Dec;8(12):1535-1538.
    PMID: 36543504 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacep.2022.09.014
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  3. Seghatoleslam T, Habi H, Rashid RA, Mosavi N, Asmaee S, Naseri A
    Iran J Public Health, 2012;41(5):39-45.
    PMID: 23113176
    THE CURRENT STUDY AIMED TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  4. Elnaem MH, Elrggal ME, Syed N, Naqvi AA, Hadi MA
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2021;17(4):503-511.
    PMID: 32928091 DOI: 10.2174/1573399816666200914140939
    INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). There is a scarcity of literature reviews that describe and summarize T2DM patients' knowledge and perception about CVD prevention.

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and summarize the assessment of knowledge and perceptions about CVD risk and preventive approaches among patients with T2DM.

    METHODS: A scoping review methodology was adopted, and three scientific databases, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed were searched using predefined search terms. A multistage screening process that considered relevancy, publication year (2009-2019), English language, and article type (original research) was followed. We formulated research questions focused on the assessment of levels of knowledge and perceptions of the illness relevant to CVD prevention and the identification of associated patients' characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 16 studies were included. Patients were not confident to identify CVD risk and other clinical consequences that may occur in the prognostic pathway of T2DM. Furthermore, patients were less likely to identify all CV risk factors indicating a lack of understanding of the multi-- factorial contribution of CVD risk. Patients' beliefs about medications were correlated with their level of adherence to medications for CVD prevention. Many knowledge gaps were identified, including the basic disease expectations at the time of diagnosis, identification of individuals' CVD risk factors, and management aspects. Knowledge and perceptions were affected by patients' demographic characteristics, e.g., educational level, race, age, and area of residence.

    CONCLUSION: There are knowledge gaps concerning the understanding of CVD risk among patients with T2DM. The findings necessitate educational initiatives to boost CVD prevention among patients with T2DM. Furthermore, these should be individualized based on patients' characteristics, knowledge gaps, disease duration, and estimated CVD risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  5. Dapari R, Ismail H, Ismail R, Ismail NH
    Tanaffos, 2017;16(1):46-52.
    PMID: 28638424
    BACKGROUND: The Delphi method has been widely applied in many study areas to systematically gather experts' input on particular topic. Recently, it has become increasingly well known in health related research. This paper applied the Fuzzy Delphi method to enhance the validation of a questionnaire pertaining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk factors among metal industry workers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A detailed, predefined list of possible risk factors for COPD among metal industry workers was created through a comprehensive and exhaustive review of literature from 1995 to 2015. The COPD questionnaire were distributed among people identified as occupational, environmental, and hygiene experts. Linguistic variable using Likert scale was used by the expert to indicate their expert judgment of each item. Subsequently, the linguistic variable was converted into a triangular fuzzy number. The average score of the fuzzy number will be used to determine whether the item will be removed or retained.

    RESULTS: Ten experts were involved in evaluating 26 items. The experts were in agreement with most of the items, with an average fuzzy number range between 0.429 and 0.800. Two items were removed and three items were added, leaving a total 26 items selected for the COPD risk factors questionnaire. The experts were in disagreement with each other for items F10 and F11 where most of the experts claimed that the question is too subjective and based on self-perception only.

    CONCLUSION: The fuzzy Delphi method enhanced the accuracy of the questionnaire pertaining to COPD risk factors, and decreased the length of the established tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  6. Lee WS, Wong SY, Wong SY, Koay ZL, Safuan NSK, Sam ZH, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2021 Jul;50(7):580-582.
    PMID: 34342340 DOI: 10.47102/annals-acadmedsg.2020586
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  7. Mohd Faizal AS, Thevarajah TM, Khor SM, Chang SW
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2021 Aug;207:106190.
    PMID: 34077865 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106190
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is a global health issue. Traditionally, statistical models are used commonly in the risk prediction and assessment of CVD. However, the adoption of artificial intelligent (AI) approach is rapidly taking hold in the current era of technology to evaluate patient risks and predict the outcome of CVD. In this review, we outline various conventional risk scores and prediction models and do a comparison with the AI approach. The strengths and limitations of both conventional and AI approaches are discussed. Besides that, biomarker discovery related to CVD are also elucidated as the biomarkers can be used in the risk stratification as well as early detection of the disease. Moreover, problems and challenges involved in current CVD studies are explored. Lastly, future prospects of CVD risk prediction and assessment in the multi-modality of big data integrative approaches are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  8. Yamin DH, Husin A, Harun A
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:631865.
    PMID: 34458217 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.631865
    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an important healthcare-associated infection caused by various nosocomial pathogens. Candida parapsilosis has emerged as a crucial causative agent for the CRBSI in the last two decades. Many factors have been associated with the development of CRBSI including, demography, pre-maturity, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart diseases, neuropathy, respiratory diseases, renal dysfunction, hematological and solid organ malignancies, and intestinal dysfunction), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (MV), total parenteral nutrition (TPN), prior antibiotic and/or antifungal therapy, neutropenia, prior surgery, immunosuppressant, and type, site, number, and duration of catheters. This study aims to determine C. parapsilosis CRBSI risk factors. A retrospective study has been performed in an 853-bedded tertiary-care hospital in north-eastern Malaysia. All inpatients with C. parapsilosis positive blood cultures from January 2006 to December 2018 were included, and their medical records were reviewed using a standardized checklist. Out of 208 candidemia episodes, 177 had at least one catheter during admission, and 31 cases had not been catheterized and were excluded. Among the 177 cases, 30 CRBSI cases were compared to 147 non-CRBSI cases [81 bloodstream infections (BSIs), 66 catheter colonizers]. The significance of different risk factors was calculated using multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis of potential risk factors shows that ICU admission was significantly associated with non-CRBSI as compared to CRBSI [OR, 0.242; 95% CI (0.080-0.734); p = 0.012], and TPN was significantly positively associated with CRBSI than non-CRBSI [OR, 3.079; 95%CI (1.125-8.429); p = 0.029], while other risk factors were not associated significantly. Patients admitted in ICU were less likely to develop C. parapsilosis CRBSI while patients receiving TPN were more likely to have C. parapsilosis CRBSI when compared to the non-CRBSI group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  9. Biswas R, Hall DA
    PMID: 32840860 DOI: 10.1007/7854_2020_154
    How many people are affected by tinnitus? Is the risk of developing tinnitus on the rise or has it been declining over time? What modifiable lifestyle factors could help to prevent tinnitus? These population-based questions can be addressed through epidemiological research. Epidemiology refers to the underlying and basic science of public health. It describes the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems. There are two key concepts in epidemiology: (1) measures of frequency and (2) measures of effect. In this chapter, we introduce the two main measures of frequency, prevalence and incidence. We also introduce the notion of risk factors, critical for understanding measures of effect concerning the risk of developing a health condition. In both sections, we provide illustrative examples from the published literature on tinnitus. We end by offering a critical evaluation of the current status of epidemiological research on tinnitus and point to some promising future directions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  10. Ahmed N, Arshad S, Basheer SN, Karobari MI, Marya A, Marya CM, et al.
    PMID: 34769523 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182111003
    Despite growing knowledge of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on general health, smoking is one of the most widely prevalent addictions around the world. Globally, about 1.1 billion smokers and over 8 million people die each year because of cigarette smoking. Smoking acts as a source for a variety of oral and systemic diseases. Various periodontal issues such as increased pocket depth, loss of alveolar bone, tooth mobility, oral lesions, ulcerations, halitosis, and stained teeth are more common among smokers. This systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines from PRISMA, and research articles were retrieved from the Web database sources on 31 May 2021. The quality of research articles was ensured by the type of evidence from combined schema incorporating as schema-13 evidence type description, Cochrane health promotion and public health field (CHPPHF), and the health gains notation framework-14 screening question for quality assessment of qualitative and quantitative studies. Smokers have been found to have bleeding on probing, periodontal pockets, and clinical attachment loss compared to nonsmokers. Oral and respiratory cancers are among the most lethal known diseases caused by cigarette smoking and other commonly occurring sequelae such as stained teeth, periodontal diseases, etc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  11. Satar SNA, Mogan S, Jaafar WPN, Maghalingam S, Affendi FAR, Ng CF, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2023 Mar;78(2):149-154.
    PMID: 36988523
    INTRODUCTION: Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important investigational tool that is widely used in the hospital settings for numerous indications. The aim was to determine factors associated with abnormal EEG and its clinical correlations in hospitalised patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with at least one EEG recording were recruited. The EEG and clinical data were collated.

    RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty patients underwent EEG and 154 (61.6%) were found to have abnormal EEG. The abnormal changes consist of theta activity (79,31.6%), delta activity (20, 8%), focal discharges (41,16.4%) and generalised discharges (14, 5.6%). Older patients had 3.481 higher risk for EEG abnormalities, p=0.001. Patients who had focal seizures had 2.240 higher risk of having EEG abnormalities, p<0.001. Low protein level was a risk for EEG abnormalities, p=0.003.

    CONCLUSION: This study emphasised that an abnormal EEG remains a useful tool in determining the likelihood for seizures in a hospital setting. The risk factors for EEG abnormality in hospitalised patients were age, focal seizures and low protein level. The EEG may have an important role as part of the workup in hospitalised patients to aid the clinician to tailor their management in a holistic manner.

    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  12. Aftab S, Ejaz I, Waqar U, Khan HI, Hanif A, Usman A, et al.
    Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries. Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.

    Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.

    Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  13. Goh SSL, Lai PSM, Tan ATB, Ponnampalavanar S
    Osteoporos Int, 2018 03;29(3):595-613.
    PMID: 29159533 DOI: 10.1007/s00198-017-4305-8
    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted from 1989 to 2015 in six databases. Full text, English articles on HIV-infected individuals ≥ 18 years, which used dual X-ray absorptiometry to measure BMD, were included. Studies were excluded if the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was without a comparison group, and the BMD/T-score were not reported.

    RESULTS: Twenty-one cross sectional and eight longitudinal studies were included. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was significantly higher in both HIV-infected [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4 (95%Cl: 2.0, 2.8) at lumbar spine, 2.6 (95%Cl: 2.2, 3.0) at hip] and ART-treated individuals [OR = 2.8 (95%Cl: 2.0, 3.8) at lumbar spine, 3.4 (95%Cl: 2.5, 4.7) at hip] when compared to controls. PI-treated individuals had an OR of 1.3 (95%Cl: 1.0, 1.7) of developing osteopenia/osteoporosis compared to controls. A higher proportion of tenofovir-treated individuals (52.6%) had lower BMD compared to controls (42.7%), but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.248). No significant difference was found in the percent change of BMD at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, or total hip from baseline to follow-up between HIV-infected, PI-treated, tenofovir-treated, and controls. Older age, history of bone fracture, low BMI, low body weight, being Hispanic or Caucasian, low testosterone level, smoking, low CD4 cell count, lipodystrophy, low fat mass, and low lean body mass were associated with low BMD.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was two times more compared to controls. However, evidence concerning bone loss within the first year of HIV infection and ART initiation was preliminary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  14. Ibrahim O, Maskon O, Darinah N, Raymond AA, Rahman MM
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 Nov;29(6):1319-22.
    PMID: 24550945
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance and associated risk factors based on biochemical parameters using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry.
    METHODS: The study was conducted at the outpatients cardiology clinic of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from August 2011 to February 2012. Subjects on aspirin therapy were divided into two groups; first-ever coronary event and recurrent coronary event. Aspirin resistance was measured by a Multiplate(®) platelet analyser.
    RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (63 male, 11 female), with a mean age of 57.93 ± 74.1years were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups -first-ever coronary event group (n=52) and recurrent coronary event group (n=22). Aspirin resistance was observed in 12 out of 74 (16%) of the study patients, which consisted of 11 patients from the first-ever coronary event group and one patient from the recurrent coronary event group. There were significant correlations between aspirin resistance and age (r = -0.627; p = 0.029), total cholesterol (r = 0.608; p = 0.036) and LDL (r = 0.694; p = 0.012). LDL was the main predictor for area under the curve (AUC) for aspirin resistance. However, there was no association between aspirin resistance and cardiovascular events in both groups in this study.
    CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin resistance was observed in 16% of the study population. LDL was the major predictor of aspirin resistance. No association was found in the study between aspirin resistance with recurrent coronary events.
    KEYWORDS: Aspirin resistance; Multiplate® platelet analyser; aspirin responsiveness; first-ever coronary event; recurrent coronary event
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  15. Abdul Hadi H
    A cross sectional study was conducted among tea plantation workers in Cameron Highlands from July to December 2006 to study the prevalence of low back pain and factors associated with it. One hundred and six tea plantation field workers participated in the study. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Time motion studies were also conducted for 3 different job categories. The prevalence of back pain experienced throughout their work in the plantation was 81.1% and the prevalence of low
    back pain experienced in the past 12 months was 64.2%. Feeling the need to work as fast as possible was a significant predictor of low back pain and increased the risk by 3.5 times, therefore it is suggested that both the management and workers give serious attention to this particular aspect to reduce the incidence of low back pain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  16. Norhayati MN, Masseni AA, Azlina I
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e2983.
    PMID: 28243527 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2983
    BACKGROUND: The outcomes of the physician-patient discussion intervene in the satisfaction of cardiovascular disease risk patients. Adherence to treatment, provision of continuous care, clinical management of the illness and patients' adjustment are influenced by satisfaction with physician-patient interaction. This study aims to determine the patient satisfaction with doctor-patient interaction and over six months after following prevention counselling, its associations with modifiable cardiovascular risk factors amongst moderately-high risk patients in a primary healthcare clinic in Kelantan, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted amongst patients with moderately-high cardiovascular risk. A total of 104 moderately-high risk patients were recruited and underwent structured prevention counselling based on the World Health Organization guideline, and their satisfaction with the doctor-patient interaction was assessed using 'Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11,' the Malay version of the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale-21. Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at a follow-up visit at six months. Descriptive analysis, paired t test and linear regression analyses were performed.
    RESULTS: A total of 102 patients responded, giving a response rate of 98.1%. At baseline, 76.5% of the respondents were satisfied with the relation with their doctor, with the favourable domain of distress relief (85.3%) and rapport/confidence (91.2%). The unfavourable domain was interaction outcome, with satisfaction in only 67.6% of the respondents. Between the two visits, changes had occurred in total cholesterol (P = 0.022) and in systolic blood pressure (P risks.
    DISCUSSION: The 'Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11' which represents a component of the interpersonal doctor-patient relationship can be used to assess improvements of the medical skills and in medical training to enhance the quality of therapeutic communication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors*
  17. Ong C, Dokos S, Chan B, Lim E, Al Abed A, Bin Abu Osman NA, et al.
    PMID: 23680359 DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-10-35
    Despite the rapid advancement of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), adverse events leading to deaths have been frequently reported in patients implanted with LVADs, including bleeding, infection, thromboembolism, neurological dysfunction and hemolysis. Cannulation forms an important component with regards to thrombus formation in assisted patients by varying the intraventricular flow distribution in the left ventricle (LV). To investigate the correlation between LVAD cannula placement and potential for thrombus formation, detailed analysis of the intraventricular flow field was carried out in the present study using a two way fluid structure interaction (FSI), axisymmetric model of a passive LV incorporating an inflow cannula. Three different cannula placements were simulated, with device insertion near the LV apex, penetrating one-fourth and mid-way into the LV long axis. The risk of thrombus formation is assessed by analyzing the intraventricular vorticity distribution and its associated vortex intensity, amount of stagnation flow in the ventricle as well as the level of wall shear stress. Our results show that the one-fourth placement of the cannula into the LV achieves the best performance in reducing the risk of thrombus formation. Compared to cannula placement near the apex, higher vortex intensity is achieved at the one-fourth placement, thus increasing wash out of platelets at the ventricular wall. One-fourth LV penetration produced negligible stagnation flow region near the apical wall region, helping to reduce platelet deposition on the surface of the cannula and the ventricular wall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  18. Kuan YC, How SH, Azian AA, Liam CK, Ng TH, Fauzi AR
    Annals of thoracic medicine, 2012 Apr;7(2):69-73.
    PMID: 22558010 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.94522
    Prolonged use of oral corticosteroids is a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the effect of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on bone mineral density (BMD) of asthmatic patients remains controversial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  19. Fong AY, Sim KH
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Sep;65(3):165.
    PMID: 21939161
    The rising epidemic of established modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and cigarette smoking, to a large part, are responsible for the clinical events such as acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cerebrovascular events (strokes, CVE). In our National ACS and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) Registries, it has been documented that over 90% of patients have at least one identifiable CVRF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
  20. Nimir A, Othman A, Ee S, Musa Z, Majid IA, Kamarudin Z, et al.
    J Clin Med Res, 2010 May 19;2(3):117-20.
    PMID: 21629523 DOI: 10.4021/jocmr2010.06.375w
    Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in different populations may vary according to different environments, social customs and habits. This study was designed to measure the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among patients with different malignancies and to ascertain the association between common risk factors and disease transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Risk Factors
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