• 1 Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
  • 2 Global and Tropical Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research and Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territories 0811, Australia
  • 3 MRC Centre for Genomics and Global Health, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
  • 4 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA
  • 5 National Centre for Parasitology, Entomology, and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • 6 Sampov Meas Referral Hospital, Pursat, Cambodia
  • 7 Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia
  • 8 Infectious Diseases Society Sabah-Menzies School of Health Research Clinical Research Unit and Queen Elizabeth Hospital Clinical Research Centre, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • 9 Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
  • 10 Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
  • 11 Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Madang, Papua New Guinea
  • 12 Division of Population Health and Immunity, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  • 13 Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 14 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 15 Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar
  • 16 Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Key Laboratory of Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention (Ministry of Health), Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Parasite Molecular Biology, Wuxi, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China
Nat. Genet., 2016 08;48(8):959-964.
PMID: 27348299 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3599


The widespread distribution and relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection present major challenges for the elimination of malaria. To characterize the genetic diversity of this parasite in individual infections and across the population, we performed deep genome sequencing of >200 clinical samples collected across the Asia-Pacific region and analyzed data on >300,000 SNPs and nine regions of the genome with large copy number variations. Individual infections showed complex patterns of genetic structure, with variation not only in the number of dominant clones but also in their level of relatedness and inbreeding. At the population level, we observed strong signals of recent evolutionary selection both in known drug resistance genes and at new loci, and these varied markedly between geographical locations. These findings demonstrate a dynamic landscape of local evolutionary adaptation in the parasite population and provide a foundation for genomic surveillance to guide effective strategies for control and elimination of P. vivax.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.