• 1 Centre of Lipids Engineering & Applied Research (CLEAR), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific & Industrial Research (ISI-SIR), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, and Malaysia Faculty of Chemical & Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia E-mail:
Water Sci Technol, 2017 02;75(3-4):864-880.
PMID: 28234287 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2016.568


This work was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of castor bean residue based activated carbons prepared through metals chloride activation. The activated carbons were characterized for textural properties and surface chemistry, and the adsorption data of rhodamine B were established to investigate the removal performance. Zinc chloride-activated carbon with specific surface area of 395 m(2)/g displayed a higher adsorption capacity of 175 mg/g. Magnesium chloride and iron(III) chloride are less toxic and promising agents for composite chemical activation. The adsorption data obeyed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The rate-limiting step in the adsorption of rhodamine B is film diffusion. The positive values of enthalpy and entropy indicate that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous at high temperature.

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