Numerous individual barriers, including negative attitudes toward opioid agonist therapies (OAT), have undermined HIV prevention efforts in Ukraine where the epidemic is concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). The recent availability of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), an opioid antagonist, provides new opportunities for treatment and prevention, but little is known about patient preferences. We conducted qualitative analysis using focus groups (FG) of PWID recruited based on OAT experience: currently, previously, and never on OAT in five Ukrainian cities. FG included 199 PWID in 25 focus groups. Focus group transcripts were coded and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify common themes and domains related to attitudes about and preferences for XR-NTX, relative to other treatments. Interest in XR-NTX was supported if supervised opioid withdrawal and psychological support were assured. Other factors supporting XR-NTX included a focus on younger PWID early in their injection career and motivated for recovery. Perceptions of recovery included not receiving psychoactive medications like methadone or buprenorphine. With more information, XR-NTX could be a viable option for PWID in Ukraine, especially if concerns regarding withdrawal and psychological support are adequately addressed.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.