• 1 Faculty of Earth Science, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
  • 3 School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
PLoS ONE, 2018;13(11):e0206982.
PMID: 30399167 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206982


BACKGROUND: The resistance problem of dengue vectors to different classes of insecticides that are used for public health has raised concerns about vector control programmes. Hence, the discovery of alternative compounds that would enhance existing tools is important for overcoming the resistance problem of using insecticides in vectors and ensuring a chemical-free environment. The larvicidal effects of Azolla pinnata extracts by using two different extraction methods with methanol solvent against Aedes in early 4th instar larvae was conducted.

METHODS: The fresh Azolla pinnata plant from Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia was used for crude extraction using Soxhlet and maceration methods. Then, the chemical composition of extracts and its structure were identified using GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Shimadzu). Next, following the WHO procedures for larval bioassays, the extracts were used to evaluate the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes mosquito vectors.

RESULTS: The larvicidal activity of Azolla pinnata plant extracts evidently affected the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. The Soxhlet extraction method had the highest larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti early 4th instar larvae, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1093 and 1343 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, the maceration extraction compounds were recorded with the LC50 and LC95 values of 1280 and 1520 mg/L, respectively. The larvae bioassay test for Ae. albopictus showed closely similar values in its Soxhlet extraction, with LC50 and LC95 values of 1035 and 1524 mg/L, compared with the maceration extraction LC50 and LC95 values of 1037 and 1579 mg/L, respectively. The non-target organism test on guppy fish, Poecilia reticulata, showed no mortalities and posed no toxic effects. The chemical composition of the Azolla pinnata plant extract has been found and characterized as having 18 active compounds for the Soxhlet method and 15 active compounds for the maceration method.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that the crude extract of A. pinnata bioactive molecules are effective and have the potential to be developed as biolarvicides for Aedes mosquito vector control. This study recommends future research on the use of active ingredients isolated from A. pinnata extracts and their evaluation against larvicidal activity of Aedes in small-scale field trials for environmentally safe botanical insecticide invention.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.