Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1326 in total

  1. Gan PT, Lim YY, Ting ASY
    Arch Microbiol, 2023 Aug 11;205(9):304.
    PMID: 37566125 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-023-03649-y
    The influence of light exposure on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of nine fungal isolates [Pseudopestalotiopsis theae (EF13), Fusarium solani (EF5), Xylaria venustula (PH22), Fusarium proliferatum (CCH), Colletotrichum boninese (PL9), Colletotrichum boninese (PL1), Colletotrichum boninese (OL2), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (OL3) and Colletotrichum siamense (PL3)] were determined. The isolates were incubated in blue, red, green, yellow and white fluorescent light (12 h photoperiod of alternating light/dark). It was observed that green light induced higher total phenolic content (TPC) (2.96 ± 0.16 mg-30.71 ± 1.03 mg GAE/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in most isolates (4.82 ± 0.04-53.55 ± 4.33 mg GAE/g), whereas red light induced higher total flavonoid content (TFC) levels (1.14 ± 0.08-18.40 ± 1.12 mg QE/g). The crude extracts from most fungal cultures exposed to green and red lights were also notably more potent against the tested pathogens, as larger zones of inhibition (ZOI) (9.00 ± 1.00-38.30 ± 2.90 mm) and lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (0.0196-1.25 mg/mL) were achieved for antimicrobial effect. This study showed that light treatments are effective strategies in enhancing production of more potent antimicrobial compounds and valuable antioxidants from fungal isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  2. Ong CB, Annuar MSM
    J Food Biochem, 2021 10;45(10):e13924.
    PMID: 34490635 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13924
    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-tannase composite was investigated as an immobilized biocatalyst on the basis of its facile preparation, low cost, and excellent aqueous dispersibility. Cross-linked tannase enzymes, obtained in the presence of glutaraldehyde, were composited with MWCNT via physical adsorption. Multiple techniques were applied to investigate, and corroborate the successful adsorption of cross-linked tannase onto the MWCNT structure. Green tea infusion extract post-treatment using the composite preparation showed elevated radical scavenging activities relative to the control. Green tea infusion extract exhibited a markedly reduced EC50 value on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals following its treatment with the enzyme composite, which represents 20%-34% enhancement in its free radical scavenging capacity. Stoichiometry and number of reduced DPPH were determined and compared. The antioxidative potential of a widely consumed, health-beneficial green tea is elevated by the treatment with MWCNT-tannase composite. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cross-linked tannase enzymes were composited with pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes via simple physical adsorption. The composite presents key advantages such as low specific volume compared to other well-known immobilization media, inert, facile enzyme composition, and ease of recovery for repeated use. The work demonstrated carbon nanotube prosthetic utility in the biotransformation of food-based health commodity sought after for its nutritional benefits. The approach is of both industrial- and agricultural importance, and is a promising and viable strategy to obtain a natural, functional food supplement for the multi-billion dollar well-being and health-related industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  3. Kalick LS, Khan HA, Maung E, Baez Y, Atkinson AN, Wallace CE, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2023 Feb;188:106630.
    PMID: 36581166 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106630
    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), also known as the "queen of fruits", is a tropical fruit of the Clusiacea family. While native to Southeast Asian countries, such as Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India, and the Philippines, the fruit has gained popularity in the United States due to its health-promoting attributes. In traditional medicine, mangosteen has been used to treat a variety of illnesses, ranging from dysentery to wound healing. Mangosteen has been shown to exhibit numerous biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties. Disease-preventative and therapeutic properties of mangosteen have been ascribed to secondary metabolites called xanthones, present in several parts of the tree, including the pericarp, fruit rind, peel, stem bark, root bark, and leaf. Of the 68 mangosteen xanthones identified so far, the most widely-studied are α-mangostin and γ-mangostin. Emerging studies have found that mangosteen constituents and phytochemicals exert encouraging antineoplastic effects against a myriad of human malignancies. While there are a growing number of individual research papers on the anticancer properties of mangosteen, a complete and critical evaluation of published experimental findings has not been accomplished. Accordingly, the objective of this work is to present an in-depth analysis of the cancer preventive and anticancer potential of mangosteen constituents, with a special emphasis on the associated cellular and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and safety of mangosteen-derived agents together with current challenges and future research avenues are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  4. Bashar HMK, Juraimi AS, Ahmad-Hamdani MS, Uddin MK, Asib N, Anwar MP, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(1):e0280159.
    PMID: 36608038 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0280159
    Herbicides made from natural molecules are cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives to synthetic chemical herbicides for controlling weeds in the crop field. In this context, an investigation was carried out to ascertain the allelopathic potential of Parthenium hysterophorus L. as well as to identify its phenolic components which are responsible for the allelopathic effect. During the observation, the rate of germination and seedlings' growth of Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc, Raphanus sativus (L.) Domin, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne., Cucumis sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Capsicum frutescens L., Zea mays L., Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Daucus carota L., Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn were investigated by using methanol extracts, isolated from leaf, stem and flower of P. hysterophorus. Six concentrations (i.e., 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 g L-1) of methanol extracts were isolated from P. hysterophorus leaf, stem and flower were compared to the control (distilled water). It was also observed that the concentration of methanol extracts (isolated from P. hysterophorus leaf, stem, and flower) while increased, the rate of seed germination and seedling growth of both selected crops and weeds decreased drastically, indicating that these methanol extracts have allelopathic potential. The allelopathic potential of P. hysterophorus leaf extraction (811) was found higher than the extraction of the stem (1554) and flower (1109), which is confirmed by EC50 values. The principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to re-validate the allelopathic potentiality of these methanol extracts and confirmed that Raphanus sativus, Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum frutescens, Abelmoschus esculentus, Daucus carota, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Eleusine indica were highly susceptible to allelochemicals of P. hysterophorus. Besides these, the LC-MS analysis also revealed that the P. hysterophorus leaf extract contained 7 phenolic compounds which were responsible for the inhibition of tested crops and weeds through allelopathic effect. The results of the current study revealed that the leaf of P. hysterophorus is a major source of allelopathic potential on crops and weeds and which could be used as a valuable natural herbicide in the future for the sustainability of crop production through controlling weeds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  5. Imam MU, Ismail M, Ooi DJ, Azmi NH, Sarega N, Chan KW, et al.
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;36(4):585-93.
    PMID: 25641328 DOI: 10.3109/07388551.2014.995586
    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  6. Hossain MS, Urbi Z, Sule A, Hafizur Rahman KM
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:274905.
    PMID: 25950015 DOI: 10.1155/2014/274905
    As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids. In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper. Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  7. Tan LY, Yin WF, Chan KG
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(4):4339-51.
    PMID: 22666033 DOI: 10.3390/s120404339
    Quorum sensing regulates bacterial virulence determinants, therefore making it an interesting target to attenuate pathogens. In this work, we screened edible, endemic plants in Malaysia for anti-quorum sensing properties. Extracts from Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. G. Hartley, a Malay garden salad, inhibited response of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 to N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, thus interfering with violacein production; reduced bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401], disrupted pyocyanin synthesis, swarming motility and expression of lecA::lux of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Although the chemical nature of the anti-QS compounds from M. lunu-ankenda is currently unknown, this study proves that endemic Malaysian plants could serve as leads in the search for anti-quorum sensing compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  8. Abdsamah O, Zaidi NT, Sule AB
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):675-8.
    PMID: 22713960
    Present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Ficus deltoidea at 10mg/ml, 20mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively using the disc diffusion method against 2 Gram positive {Staphylococcus aureus (IMR S-277), Bacillus subtilis (IMR K-1)}, 2 Gram negative {Escherichia coli (IMR E-940), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (IMR P-84)} and 1 fungal strain, Candida albicans (IMR C-44). All the extracts showed inhibitory activity on the fungus, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains tested except for the chloroform and aqueous extracts on B. subtilis, E. coli, and P. aeroginosa. The methanol extract exhibited good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. The methanol extract significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus forming a wide inhibition zone (15.67 ± 0.58 mm) and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (3.125 mg/ml). B. subtilis was the least sensitive to the chloroform extract (6.33 ± 0.58 mm) and highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value (25 mg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of F. deltoidea in vitro further justifies its utility in folkleric medicines for the treatment of infections of microbial origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  9. Zolkeflee NKZ, Isamail NA, Maulidiani M, Abdul Hamid NA, Ramli NS, Azlan A, et al.
    Phytochem Anal, 2021 Jan;32(1):69-83.
    PMID: 31953888 DOI: 10.1002/pca.2917
    INTRODUCTION: Muntingia calabura from the Muntingiaceae family has been documented for several medicinal uses. The combinations of drying treatment and extracting solvents for a plant species need to be determined and optimised to ensure that the extracts contain adequate amounts of the bioactive metabolites.

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the metabolite variations and antioxidant activity among M. calabura leaves subjected to different drying methods and extracted with different ethanol ratios using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR)-based metabolomics. Methodology The antioxidant activity of M. calabura leaves dried with three different drying methods and extracted with three different ethanol ratios was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assays. The metabolites variation among the extracts and correlation with antioxidant activity were analysed by 1 H-NMR-based metabolomics.

    RESULTS: Muntingia calabura leaves extracted with 50% and 100% ethanol from air-drying and freeze-drying methods had the highest total phenolic content and the lowest IC50 value for the DPPH scavenging activity. Meanwhile, oven-dried leaves extracted with 100% ethanol had the lowest IC50 value for the NO scavenging activity. A total of 43 metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, amino acids, phytosterols, phenolics and terpene glycoside were tentatively identified. A noticeable discrimination was observed in the different ethanol ratios by the principal component analysis. The partial least-squares analysis suggested that 32 compounds out of 43 compounds identified were the contributors to the bioactivities.

    CONCLUSION: The results established set the preliminary steps towards developing this plant into a high value product for phytomedicinal preparations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  10. Shafiei SNS, Ahmad K, Ikhsan NFM, Ismail SI, Sijam K
    Braz J Biol, 2020 2 20;81(1):11-17.
    PMID: 32074168 DOI: 10.1590/1519-6984.206124
    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a pathogen responsible for rice bacterial leaf blight, produces biofilm to protect viable Xoo cells from antimicrobial agents. A study was conducted to determine the potency of Acacia mangium methanol (AMMH) leaf extract as a Xoo biofilm inhibitor. Four concentrations (3.13, 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL) of AMMH leaf extract were tested for their ability to inhibit Xoo biofilm formation on a 96-well microtiter plate. The results showed that the negative controls had the highest O.D. values from other treatments, indicating the intense formation of biofilm. This was followed by the positive control (Streptomycin sulfate, 0.2 mg/mL) and AMMH leaf extract at concentration 3.13 mg/mL, which showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (1.96 and 1.57, respectively). All other treatments at concentrations of 6.25, 9.38, and 12.5 mg/mL showed no significant differences in their O.D. values (0.91, 0.79, and 0.53, respectively). For inhibition percentages, treatment with concentration 12.5 mg/mL gave the highest result (81.25%) followed by treatment at concentrations 6.25 and 9.38 mg/mL that showed no significant differences in their inhibition percentage (67.75% and 72.23%, respectively). Concentration 3.13 mg/mL resulted in 44.49% of biofilm inhibition and the positive control resulted in 30.75% of biofilm inhibition. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis of Xoo biofilm inhibition and breakdown showed the presence of non-viable Xoo cells and changes in aggregation size due to increase in AMMH leaf extract concentration. Control slides showed the absence of Xoo dead cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  11. Sengupta P, Agarwal A, Pogrebetskaya M, Roychoudhury S, Durairajanayagam D, Henkel R
    Reprod Biomed Online, 2018 Mar;36(3):311-326.
    PMID: 29277366 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbmo.2017.11.007
    To manage male infertility caused by hormonal imbalance, infections and other predicaments, multifarious treatment strategies are emerging worldwide. Contemporary treatments, such as assisted reproductive techniques, are costly with low success rates of only 10-30%; however, herbal remedies are gaining more attention as an alternative or supplementary therapeutic modality for male infertility. The beneficial effects induced by oral intake of the roots of a small evergreen shrub, Withania sominifera (Ashwagandha) on semen quality of infertile men have previously been studied. Oral intake of Ashwagandha roots has been found to inhibit lipid peroxidation, improve sperm count and motility, and regulate reproductive hormone levels. The molecular mechanisms of these effects, however, are yet to be unveiled. In this review, we will discuss the role of herbal medicines in male infertility; provide a detailed analysis of various human and animal studies involving Withania somnifera; describe a proposed direct oxidative mechanism involving mitigation of oxidative stress as well as an indirect mechanism consisting of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-like-mimetic pathway ameliorating hormonal balance through crosstalk among different endocrine glands to improve male fertility; and how Withania somnifera supplementation mitigates risk factor-induced male infertility as well as ameliorates male fertility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  12. Teo BSX, Gan RY, Abdul Aziz S, Sirirak T, Mohd Asmani MF, Yusuf E
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2021 Mar;20(3):993-1001.
    PMID: 32659861 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.13624
    BACKGROUND: Eucheuma Cottonii is a type of red algae obtained from Sabah with main active component, sulfated polysaccharide or k-carrageenan.

    AIMS: The objective of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and potential wound-healing properties in aqueous extraction of E cottonii in order to meet the increasing demand for halal and natural cosmeceutical products.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Aqueous extract of E cottonii was investigated for active compounds by phytochemical screening and IR spectroscopy. Antioxidant activity was carried out using DPPH method, and the IC50 value was 1.99 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity was examined against Staphylococcus Aureus using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and showed 10.03 ± 0.06 mm zone of inhibition, achieved by 200 mg/mL of extracts. A wound was made by skin excision of area around 100 mm2 on each mouse. Test group was treated with aqueous extract gel (10% w/w); meanwhile, the mice that were treated with honey acted as the positive control group and the untreated mice as negative control group. Results showed that the wound contraction rate inclined to aqueous extracts as compared to untreated group (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  13. Reddy BS, Rao NR, Vijeepallam K, Pandy V
    PMID: 28480421 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i3.11
    BACKGROUND: Tragia belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae which contains about 152 species. Interestingly, most of the earlier investigations have been done using only five Tragia species, namely, Tragia involucrata, Tragia cannabina, Tragia spathulata, Tragia plukenetii, and Tragia benthamii. The objective of the present review is to compile the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological studies of the selected five Tragia species reported in the literature.

    METHODS: The reported data/information was retrieved mainly from the online databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Botanical Survey of India.

    RESULTS: The present review elaborated the phytochemical, pharmacological and biological properties of the selected five Tragia species obtained from recent literature.

    CONCLUSION: This review provides a basis for future investigation of Tragia species and, especially for those species that have not been explored for biological and pharmacological activities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  14. Juwita T, Melyani Puspitasari I, Levita J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2018 Jan;21(4):151-165.
    PMID: 30311471 DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165
    In order to propose a prospective candidate for novel complementary phytopharmaceuticals, one of Zingiberaceae family plant, Etlingeraelatior or torch ginger, was being evaluated. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature research focused on the botanical aspects, nutritional quality, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of E. elatior. Researches on this particular plant were conducted in Malaysia (55.5%), Indonesia (33.3%), Thailand (8.3%) and Singapore (2.7%). This review article has revealed that the most prominent pharmacological activities were anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-tumor activities in consistent with the dominated levels of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenols. However, extended and integrated research should be converged towards intensive investigations concerning to isolated phytoconstituents and its bioactivities, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, molecular mechanism of its specific pharmacological activities, safety and efficacy studies for further development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  15. Sallehuddin N, Nordin A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Fauzi MB
    PMID: 32545210 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17114160
    Nigella sativa (NS) has been reported to have a therapeutic effect towards skin wound healing via its anti-inflammatory, tissue growth stimulation, and antioxidative properties. This review examines all the available studies on the association of Nigella sativa (NS) and skin wound healing. The search was performed in Medline via EBSCOhost and Scopus databases to retrieve the related papers released between 1970 and March 2020. The principal inclusion criteria were original article issued in English that stated wound healing criteria of in vivo skin model with topically applied NS. The search discovered 10 related articles that fulfilled the required inclusion criteria. Studies included comprise different types of wounds, namely excisional, burn, and diabetic wounds. Seven studies unravelled positive results associated with NS on skin wound healing. Thymoquinone has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties, which mainly contributed to wound healing process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology*
  16. Sangkanu S, Mitsuwan W, Mahabusarakam W, Jimoh TO, Wilairatana P, Girol AP, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 04 13;11(1):8053.
    PMID: 33850179 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-87381-x
    Acanthamoeba spp. can cause amoebic keratitis (AK). Chlorhexidine is effective for AK treatment as monotherapy, but with a relative failure on drug bioavailability in the deep corneal stroma. The combination of chlorhexidine and propamidine isethionate is recommended in the current AK treatment. However, the effectiveness of treatment depends on the parasite and virulence strains. This study aims to determine the potential of Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract and α-mangostin against Acanthamoeba triangularis, as well as the combination with chlorhexidine in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infection. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and α-mangostin were assessed in trophozoites with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL, for cysts with 4 and 1 mg/mL, respectively. The MIC of the extract and α-mangostin inhibited the growth of A. triangularis trophozoites and cysts for up to 72 h. The extract and α-mangostin combined with chlorhexidine demonstrated good synergism, resulting in a reduction of 1/4-1/16 of the MIC. The SEM results showed that Acanthamoeba cells treated with a single drug and its combination caused damage to the cell membrane and irregular cell shapes. A good combination displayed by the extract or α-mangostin and chlorhexidine, described for the first time. Therefore, this approach is promising as an alternative method for the management of Acanthamoeba infection in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  17. Pandy V, Khan Y, Yarlagadda DP, Tatinada SP
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 2021;81(4):328-334.
    PMID: 35014982
    Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia unripe fruit (MMC) was tested against heroin addiction using a mouse modified runway model of drug‑seeking. Habituation sessions were carried out for 10 min/d for 3 days. On day 0, the total run time of each mouse was noted (the start box to goal box) during the preconditioning test. This was followed by the conditioning session (30 min), in which the animals were conditioned with escalating doses of heroin hydrochloride (5, 10, 20, 40 and 40 mg/kg) for 5 days upon entry into the goal box. On day 6, the run time of each mouse, from start to goal box, was recorded during the post conditioning test. Extinction trials were performed for the next 5 days, in which no drug/saline was injected upon goal box entry. On day 13, a priming dose of heroin (8 mg/kg) was given to reinstate drug seeking in the mice. MMC given as oral doses (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) dose‑dependently prolonged the run time to reach the goal box, indicating MMC attenuated heroin reinforcement. Moreover, MMC (5 g/kg) was found to reverse the heroin‑seeking on extinction trial 1 and 2. MMC was also found to reverse heroin‑induced reinstatement in mice. This study demonstrates that MMC attenuated heroin seeking at different phases of drug self‑administration in a mouse modified runway model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  18. Nurdiani R, Ma'rifah RDA, Busyro IK, Jaziri AA, Prihanto AA, Firdaus M, et al.
    PeerJ, 2022;10:e13062.
    PMID: 35411257 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13062
    BACKGROUND: The fishery processing industry produces a remarkable number of by-products daily. Fish skin accounts for one of the significant wastes produced. Fish skin, however, can be subjected to extraction to yield gelatine and used as the primary raw material for edible film production. To increase the functionality of edible films, bioactive compounds can be incorporated into packaging. Mangroves produce potential bioactive compounds that are suitable as additional agents for active packaging. This study aimed to create a fish gelatine-based edible film enriched with mangrove extracts and to observe its mechanical and biological properties.

    METHODS: Two mangrove species (Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Sonneratia alba) with four extract concentrations (control, 0.05%, 0.15%, 0.25%, and 0.35%) were used to enrich edible films. The elongation, water vapour transmission, thickness, tensile strength, moisture content, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the resulting packaging were analysed.

    RESULTS: The results showed that the mangrove species and extract concentration significantly affected (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  19. Safar HF, Ali AH, Zakaria NH, Kamal N, Hassan NI, Agustar HK, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2022 Dec 01;39(4):552-558.
    PMID: 36602215 DOI: 10.47665/tb.39.4.011
    Diplazium esculentum is an edible fern commonly consumed by the local community in Malaysia either as food or medicine. Isolation work on the ethyl acetate extract of the stem of D. esculentum resulted in the purification of two steroids, subsequently identified as stigmasterol (compound 1) and ergosterol5,8-endoperoxide (compound 2). Upon further testing, compound 2 displayed strong inhibitory activity against the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive) strain, with an IC50 of 4.27±1.15 µM, while compound 1 was inactive. In silico data revealed that compound 2 showed good binding affinity to P. falciparum-Sarco endoplasmic reticulum calcium-dependent ATPase (PfATP6); however, compound 1 did not show an antiplasmodial effect due to the lack of a peroxide moiety in the chemical structure. Our data suggested that the antiplasmodial activity of compound 2 from D. esculentum might be due to the inhibition of PfATP6, which resulted in both in vitro and in silico inhibitory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
  20. Khaldi R, Rehimi N, Kharoubi R, Soltani N
    Trop Biomed, 2022 Dec 01;39(4):531-538.
    PMID: 36602212 DOI: 10.47665/tb.39.4.008
    Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is a botanical species with focal point of global research for its biological properties. The Melia azedarach tree is distinguished by its rapid growth, its adaptation to different temperate zones, as well as its insecticidal properties. All this made us think of exploiting it in biological control against different stages of mosquitoes. To this end, we aim, through the present work, to evaluate the effectiveness of Melia azedarach extracts against Culex pipiens mosquito. More specifically, our study focuses on determining the chemical composition of Melia almond oil, as well as the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities on Culex pipiens L. mosquito as well as the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Almond oil was extracted by a Soxhlet and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield was found to be 35.17%. The chemical composition revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents. A total of 7 compounds were identified, the main ones being 9,11-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,E)- (79.32%), 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester (13.24%), hexadecanoic acid and methyl ester (3.69%). The larvicidal bioassays were performed according to the protocol recommended by the World Health Organization with concentrations varying from 20 to 80 mg/L depending on the exposure time (24, 48 and 72 hours). The almond oil exhibited remarkable larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae and the lethal concentrations were determined (LC25= 23.70 mg/L, LC50=35.49 mg/L, LC90=79.61 mg/L). The results also showed that the oil caused an ovicidal activity with a significant effect on egg hatch. The recorded hatching percentages were respectively 88.79% and 72.40% for the LC25 and LC50, and this compared to the control series. Moreover, this oil exhibited significant repellency against adult mosquitoes. Furthermore, the enzymatic measurements performed on LC50 and LC90 treated larvae revealed a neurotoxic activity and a stimulation of the detoxification system as evidenced, respectively, by an inhibition of AChE and induction in GST activity. Overall, our data proved that Melia azedarach almond oil could be considered as a potent biorational alternative to synthetic insecticides for mosquito control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
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