• 1 1 Department of Bioprocess Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
  • 2 3 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
  • 3 5 Department of Biological Functions and Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan
Waste Manag Res, 2019 May;37(5):551-555.
PMID: 30727859 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X18823953


A one-step self-sustained carbonization of coconut shell biomass, carried out in a brick reactor at a relatively low temperature of 300-500°C, successfully produced a biochar-derived adsorbent with 308 m2/g surface area, 2 nm pore diameter, and 0.15 cm3/g total pore volume. The coconut shell biochar qualifies as a nano-adsorbent, supported by scanning electron microscope images, which showed well-developed nano-pores on the surface of the biochar structure, even though there was no separate activation process. This is the first report whereby coconut shell can be converted to biochar-derived nano-adsorbent at a low carbonization temperature, without the need of the activation process. This is superior to previous reports on biochar produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.