OBJECTIVE: To study the potential for apoptosis induction of Dracaena cinnabari Balf. f methanolic extract (DCBME) on tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line, H103. We evaluated the chemopreventive activity of DCBME against 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in rat.
DESIGN: Phase contrast microscope, acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) analysis of cells under fluorescence microscope, annexin-V flow-cytometry, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 assays were performed. In vivo study, the rats were given 4NQO in their drinking water. The tongue was subjected to histopathological study to evaluate the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
RESULTS: DCBME showed cytotoxic effect on H103 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DCBME showed low cytotoxic effect on a normal cell line. In H103 cells, it caused cell morphology changes, S and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, significant reduction of cell migration and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. The incidence of SCC was 85.7% in the induced cancer and vehicle groups while in rats treated with DCBME at 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was 57.1%, 28.6% and 14.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: (DCBME)-apoptosis induction reported in this work can be exploited as a potential antitumor agent with applications in medicinal treatments of tongue SCC.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.