DESIGN: Phase contrast microscope, acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) analysis of cells under fluorescence microscope, annexin-V flow-cytometry, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 assays were performed. In vivo study, the rats were given 4NQO in their drinking water. The tongue was subjected to histopathological study to evaluate the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
RESULTS: DCBME showed cytotoxic effect on H103 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DCBME showed low cytotoxic effect on a normal cell line. In H103 cells, it caused cell morphology changes, S and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, significant reduction of cell migration and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway. The incidence of SCC was 85.7% in the induced cancer and vehicle groups while in rats treated with DCBME at 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was 57.1%, 28.6% and 14.3%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: (DCBME)-apoptosis induction reported in this work can be exploited as a potential antitumor agent with applications in medicinal treatments of tongue SCC.
METHODS: EEP was obtained by maceration with absolute ethanol, then it was concentrated in rotaevaporator up to complete evaporation of the solvent. The crude extract was fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol and they were subjected to phytochemical screening and total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity of EEP and fractions was done by means of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Biomarkers of red propolis were identified by LC-Orbitrap-FTMS. To assess cytotoxic activity of the extract, cells were exposed to EEP over 72 h. Cell viability was assessed by means of MTT assay. The percentage of cell growth inhibition (IC50) was analysed by means of non-linear regression, and the absorbance values of the various investigated concentrations were subjected to one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's or Tamhane's tests (α = 0.05).
RESULTS: The results obtained using phytochemical screening and LC-Orbitrap-FTMS indicated the presence of phlobaphene tannins, catechins, chalcones, aurones, flavonones, flavonols, xanthones, pentacyclic triterpenoids and guttiferones in Brazilian red propolis. EEP and its hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained by liquid-liquid partitioning exhibited satisfactory antioxidant percentages. EEP (IC50 cell lines tested when compared to negative control.
CONCLUSIONS: C-Orbitrap-FTMS was useful to establish the chemical profile of the red propolis. Brazilian red propolis has antioxidant properties and decreases substantially the percentage of cell survival of human tumour cells; thus, it has potential to serve as an anticancer drug.