Affiliations 

  • 1 Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia. p94299@siswa.ukm.edu.my
  • 2 Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia. samsuzzaman@ukm.edu.my
  • 3 Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Electrical Electronic and Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia. tariqul@ukm.edu.my
Sci Rep, 2019 11 21;9(1):17317.
PMID: 31754189 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53857-0

Abstract

In this paper, the design consideration is investigated for a cylindrical system with low-cost and low-loss dielectric materials for the detection of breast tumor using iteratively corrected delay multiply and sum (IC- DMAS) algorithm. Anomaly in breast tissue is one of the most crucial health issues for women all over the world today. Emergency medical imaging diagnosis can be harmlessly managed by microwave-based analysis technology. Microwave Imaging (MI) has been proved to be a reliable health monitoring approach that can play a fundamental role in diagnosing anomaly in breast tissue. An array of 16 high gain microstrip antennas loaded by Index Near-Zero (INZ) metasurfaces (MS), having the impedance bandwidth of 8.5 GHz (2.70-11.20 GHz) are used as transceivers for the system. The MS is used to increase the electrical length of the signal that results in the gain enhancements. The antennas are mounted in a cylindrical arrangement on a mechanical rotating table along with a phantom mounting podium. A non-reflective positive control switching matrix is used for transmitting and receiving microwave signals. A set of lab-made realistic heterogeneous breast phantoms containing skin, fat, glandular, and tumor tissue dielectric properties in individual layers are used to verify the performance of the proposed technique. The control of the mechanical unit, data collection, and post-processing is conducted via MATLAB. The system can detect multiple tumor objects. The imaging results and numerical Signal to Mean Ratio (SMR) values of the experiment validate the system efficiency and performance that can be a viable solution for tumor detections.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.