• 1 Integrative Oceanography Division and Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
  • 2 Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 3 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia
  • 4 Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, London, UK
  • 5 Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • 6 IMAR, Instituto do Mar, and Instituto de Investigação em Ciências do Mar - Okeanos da Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal
  • 7 Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico
  • 8 Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia
  • 9 Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
  • 10 Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
  • 11 Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecosystems Group, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK
  • 12 Global Ocean Biodiversity Initiative, Seascape Consultants Ltd., Romsey, UK
  • 13 Jacobs School of Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
  • 14 Marine Biophysics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan
  • 15 Instituto Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
  • 16 Department of Ocean Sciences and Biology Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada
  • 17 The Lyell Centre for Earth and Marine Science and Technology, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
  • 18 School of Biological Sciences and Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Glob Chang Biol, 2020 Jun 12.
PMID: 32531093 DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15223


Climate change manifestation in the ocean, through warming, oxygen loss, increasing acidification, and changing particulate organic carbon flux (one metric of altered food supply), is projected to affect most deep-ocean ecosystems concomitantly with increasing direct human disturbance. Climate drivers will alter deep-sea biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, and may interact with disturbance from resource extraction activities or even climate geoengineering. We suggest that to ensure the effective management of increasing use of the deep ocean (e.g., for bottom fishing, oil and gas extraction, and deep-seabed mining), environmental management and developing regulations must consider climate change. Strategic planning, impact assessment and monitoring, spatial management, application of the precautionary approach, and full-cost accounting of extraction activities should embrace climate consciousness. Coupled climate and biological modeling approaches applied in the water and on the seafloor can help accomplish this goal. For example, Earth-System Model projections of climate-change parameters at the seafloor reveal heterogeneity in projected climate hazard and time of emergence (beyond natural variability) in regions targeted for deep-seabed mining. Models that combine climate-induced changes in ocean circulation with particle tracking predict altered transport of early life stages (larvae) under climate change. Habitat suitability models can help assess the consequences of altered larval dispersal, predict climate refugia, and identify vulnerable regions for multiple species under climate change. Engaging the deep observing community can support the necessary data provisioning to mainstream climate into the development of environmental management plans. To illustrate this approach, we focus on deep-seabed mining and the International Seabed Authority, whose mandates include regulation of all mineral-related activities in international waters and protecting the marine environment from the harmful effects of mining. However, achieving deep-ocean sustainability under the UN Sustainable Development Goals will require integration of climate consideration across all policy sectors.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.