Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 375 in total

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  1. Callaghan CT, Mesaglio T, Ascher JS, Brooks TM, Cabras AA, Chandler M, et al.
    PLoS Biol, 2022 Nov;20(11):e3001843.
    PMID: 36355752 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3001843
    As the number of observations submitted to the citizen science platform iNaturalist continues to grow, it is increasingly important that these observations can be identified to the finest taxonomic level, maximizing their value for biodiversity research. Here, we explore the benefits of acting as an identifier on iNaturalist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  2. Brodie JF, Mannion PD
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2023 Jan;38(1):15-23.
    PMID: 36089412 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2022.07.013
    The numerous explanations for why Earth's biodiversity is concentrated at low latitudes fail to explain variation in the strength and even direction of the gradient through deep time. Consequently, we do not know if today's gradient is representative of what might be expected on other planets or is merely an idiosyncrasy of Earth's history. We propose a hierarchy of factors driving the latitudinal distribution of diversity: (i) over geologically long time spans, diversity is largely predicted by climate; (ii) when climatic gradients are shallow, diversity tracks habitat area; and (iii) historical contingencies linked to niche conservatism have geologically short-term, transient influence at most. Thus, latitudinal diversity gradients, although variable in strength and direction, are largely predictable on our planet and possibly others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  3. Chu C, Lutz JA, Král K, Vrška T, Yin X, Myers JA, et al.
    Ecol Lett, 2019 Feb;22(2):245-255.
    PMID: 30548766 DOI: 10.1111/ele.13175
    Climate is widely recognised as an important determinant of the latitudinal diversity gradient. However, most existing studies make no distinction between direct and indirect effects of climate, which substantially hinders our understanding of how climate constrains biodiversity globally. Using data from 35 large forest plots, we test hypothesised relationships amongst climate, topography, forest structural attributes (stem abundance, tree size variation and stand basal area) and tree species richness to better understand drivers of latitudinal tree diversity patterns. Climate influences tree richness both directly, with more species in warm, moist, aseasonal climates and indirectly, with more species at higher stem abundance. These results imply direct limitation of species diversity by climatic stress and more rapid (co-)evolution and narrower niche partitioning in warm climates. They also support the idea that increased numbers of individuals associated with high primary productivity are partitioned to support a greater number of species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  4. Sutherland WJ, Broad S, Butchart SHM, Clarke SJ, Collins AM, Dicks LV, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2019 01;34(1):83-94.
    PMID: 30554808 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.11.001
    We present the results of our tenth annual horizon scan. We identified 15 emerging priority topics that may have major positive or negative effects on the future conservation of global biodiversity, but currently have low awareness within the conservation community. We hope to increase research and policy attention on these areas, improving the capacity of the community to mitigate impacts of potentially negative issues, and maximise the benefits of issues that provide opportunities. Topics include advances in crop breeding, which may affect insects and land use; manipulations of natural water flows and weather systems on the Tibetan Plateau; release of carbon and mercury from melting polar ice and thawing permafrost; new funding schemes and regulations; and land-use changes across Indo-Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  5. Schmelz RM
    Zootaxa, 2018 Oct 04;4496(1):6-10.
    PMID: 30313683 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4496.1.3
    This Special Volume of Zootaxa unites forty papers written in honor of the late András Zicsi (1928-2015), the eminent earthworm taxonomist. They deal with the taxonomy, systematics and distribution of earthworms and enchytraeids, the two major groups of soil-dwelling Oligochaeta. Altogether, 71 new species-group taxa are described, 60 species and subspecies of earthworms and 11 species of enchytraeids. They are from 15 countries all around the globe: Spain, Italy, Hungary, Turkey, Botswana, Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  6. Woodcock P, Edwards DP, Newton RJ, Vun Khen C, Bottrell SH, Hamer KC
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e60756.
    PMID: 23593302 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060756
    Trophic organisation defines the flow of energy through ecosystems and is a key component of community structure. Widespread and intensifying anthropogenic disturbance threatens to disrupt trophic organisation by altering species composition and relative abundances and by driving shifts in the trophic ecology of species that persist in disturbed ecosystems. We examined how intensive disturbance caused by selective logging affects trophic organisation in the biodiversity hotspot of Sabah, Borneo. Using stable nitrogen isotopes, we quantified the positions in the food web of 159 leaf-litter ant species in unlogged and logged rainforest and tested four predictions: (i) there is a negative relationship between the trophic position of a species in unlogged forest and its change in abundance following logging, (ii) the trophic positions of species are altered by logging, (iii) disturbance alters the frequency distribution of trophic positions within the ant assemblage, and (iv) disturbance reduces food chain length. We found that ant abundance was 30% lower in logged forest than in unlogged forest but changes in abundance of individual species were not related to trophic position, providing no support for prediction (i). However, trophic positions of individual species were significantly higher in logged forest, supporting prediction (ii). Consequently, the frequency distribution of trophic positions differed significantly between unlogged and logged forest, supporting prediction (iii), and food chains were 0.2 trophic levels longer in logged forest, the opposite of prediction (iv). Our results demonstrate that disturbance can alter trophic organisation even without trophically-biased changes in community composition. Nonetheless, the absence of any reduction in food chain length in logged forest suggests that species-rich arthropod food webs do not experience trophic downgrading or a related collapse in trophic organisation despite the disturbance caused by logging. These food webs appear able to bend without breaking in the face of some forms of anthropogenic disturbance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  7. Beck J, Holloway JD, Khen CV, Kitching IJ
    Am Nat, 2012 Sep;180(3):E64-74.
    PMID: 22854086 DOI: 10.1086/666982
    Tropical beta diversity, and particularly that of herbivorous insects in rainforests, is often considered to be enormous, but this notion has recently been challenged. Because tropical beta diversity is highly relevant to our view on biodiversity, it is important to gain more insights and to resolve methodological problems that may lead to contradictions in different studies. We used data on two ecologically distinct moth families from Southeast Asia and analyzed separately the contribution of beta components to overall species richness at three spatial scales. Observed diversity partitions were compared under different types of null models. We found that alpha diversity was lower than expected on the basis of null models, whereas hierarchical beta components were larger than expected. Beta components played a significant role in shaping gamma diversity, and their contribution can be high (multiplicative beta >5). We found a reduction in beta components when comparing primary forests to agricultural sites (cf. "biotic homogenization"), but even in these habitats, beta components were still substantial. Our analyses show that beta components do play an important role in our data on tropical herbivorous insects and that these results are not attributable to lumping different habitats when sampling environmental gradients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  8. Mustafa S
    Ambio, 2010 Nov;39(7):528-30.
    PMID: 21090008
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  9. Lo PC, Liu SH, Nor SAM, Chen WJ
    PLoS One, 2017;12(4):e0176623.
    PMID: 28453569 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176623
    The family Sciaenidae, known as croakers or drums, is one of the largest perciform fish families. A recent multi-gene based study investigating the phylogeny and biogeography of global sciaenids revealed that the origin and early diversification of this family occurred in tropical America during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene before undergoing range expansions to other seas including the Indo-West Pacific, where high species richness is observed. Despite this clarification of the overall evolutionary history of the family, knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogeny of sciaenid genera endemic to the Indo-West Pacific is still limited due to lack of a thorough survey of all taxa. In this study, we used DNA-based approaches to investigate the evolutionary relationships, to explore the species diversity, and to elucidate the taxonomic status of sciaenid species/genera within the Indo-West Pacific clade. Three datasets were herein built for the above objectives: the combined dataset (248 samples from 45 currently recognized species) from one nuclear gene (RAG1) and one mitochondrial gene (COI); the dataset with only RAG1 gene sequences (245 samples from 44 currently recognized species); and the dataset with only COI gene sequences (308 samples from 51 currently recognized species). The latter was primarily used for our biodiversity exploration with two different species delimitation methods (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, ABGD and Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent, GMYC). The results were further evaluated with help of four supplementary criteria for species delimitation (genetic similarity, monophyly inferred from individual gene and combined data trees, geographic distribution, and morphology). Our final results confirmed the validity of 32 currently recognized species and identified several potential new species waiting for formal descriptions. We also reexamined the taxonomic status of the genera, Larimichthys, Nibea, Protonibea and Megalonibea, and suggested a revision of Nibea and proposed a new genus Pseudolarimichthys.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  10. Nakamura A, Kitching RL, Cao M, Creedy TJ, Fayle TM, Freiberg M, et al.
    Trends Ecol Evol, 2017 06;32(6):438-451.
    PMID: 28359572 DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.02.020
    Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies. Such understanding is vital for the successful management and conservation of global forests and the ecosystem services they provide to the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  11. Ishak NHBA, Adam N'B, Kassim Z
    Zootaxa, 2018 May 25;4422(4):451-477.
    PMID: 30313479 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4422.4.1
    The marine pelagic tunicates of Family Salpidae Lahille, 1888 presence in the coastal waters of Terengganu was studied for the first time. Samples were collected from April to July 2016 using 200µm Bongo net; hauled vertically from a stationary vessel; and preserved in 5% buffered formaldehyde. A total of 4 species under this family were found, observed and identified: Thalia rhomboides (Quoy and Gaimard 1824); Thalia sibogae (van Soest 1973); Weelia cylindrica (Cuvier 1804) and Brooksia rostrata (Traustedt 1893). All species were identified as new records in Malaysian waters. The description on morphological characteristics and a key to the solitary and aggregate of the recorded species is added. The distribution was analyzed from the 18 sampling stations in theTerengganu waters including Pulau Bidong, Pulau Yu and Pulau Kapas. The collected data was then compiled with previous available global literature on the distribution and occurrence of these four species, consequently updating the biodiversity of Malaysian fauna and its worldwide biogeography distribution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  12. Yousef Kalafi E, Town C, Kaur Dhillon S
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2018;77(2):179-193.
    PMID: 28868609 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2017.0079
    Identification of taxonomy at a specific level is time consuming and reliant upon expert ecologists. Hence the demand for automated species identification incre-ased over the last two decades. Automation of data classification is primarily focussed on images while incorporating and analysing image data has recently become easier due to developments in computational technology. Research ef-forts on identification of species include specimens' image processing, extraction of identical features, followed by classifying them into correct categories. In this paper, we discuss recent automated species identification systems, mainly for categorising and evaluating their methods. We reviewed and compared different methods in step by step scheme of automated identification and classification systems of species images. The selection of methods is influenced by many variables such as level of classification, number of training data and complexity of images. The aim of writing this paper is to provide researchers and scientists an extensive background study on work related to automated species identification, focusing on pattern recognition techniques in building such systems for biodiversity studies. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 2: 179-193).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  13. Fung T, Chisholm RA, Anderson-Teixeira K, Bourg N, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, et al.
    Ecol Lett, 2020 Jan;23(1):160-171.
    PMID: 31698546 DOI: 10.1111/ele.13412
    Among the local processes that determine species diversity in ecological communities, fluctuation-dependent mechanisms that are mediated by temporal variability in the abundances of species populations have received significant attention. Higher temporal variability in the abundances of species populations can increase the strength of temporal niche partitioning but can also increase the risk of species extinctions, such that the net effect on species coexistence is not clear. We quantified this temporal population variability for tree species in 21 large forest plots and found much greater variability for higher latitude plots with fewer tree species. A fitted mechanistic model showed that among the forest plots, the net effect of temporal population variability on tree species coexistence was usually negative, but sometimes positive or negligible. Therefore, our results suggest that temporal variability in the abundances of species populations has no clear negative or positive contribution to the latitudinal gradient in tree species richness.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  14. Farhadinia MS, Waldron A, Kaszta Ż, Eid E, Hughes A, Ambarlı H, et al.
    Commun Biol, 2022 Nov 29;5(1):1221.
    PMID: 36443482 DOI: 10.1038/s42003-022-04061-w
    Aichi Target 11 committed governments to protect ≥17% of their terrestrial environments by 2020, yet it was rarely achieved, raising questions about the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework goal to protect 30% by 2030. Asia is a challenging continent for such targets, combining high biodiversity with dense human populations. Here, we evaluated achievements in Asia against Aichi Target 11. We found that Asia was the most underperforming continent globally, with just 13.2% of terrestrial protected area (PA) coverage, averaging 14.1 ± SE 1.8% per country in 2020. 73.1% of terrestrial ecoregions had <17% representation and only 7% of PAs even had an assessment of management effectiveness. We found that a higher agricultural land in 2015 was associated with lower PA coverage today. Asian countries also showed a remarkably slow average annual pace of 0.4 ± SE 0.1% increase of PA extent. These combined lines of evidence suggest that the ambitious 2030 targets are unlikely to be achieved in Asia unless the PA coverage to increase 2.4-5.9 times faster. We provided three recommendations to support Asian countries to meet their post-2020 biodiversity targets: complete reporting and the wider adoption "other effective area-based conservation measures"; restoring disturbed landscapes; and bolstering transboundary PAs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
  15. Adamowicz SJ, Chain FJ, Clare EL, Deiner K, Dincă V, Elías-Gutiérrez M, et al.
    Genome, 2016 Sep;59(9):v-ix.
    PMID: 27611699 DOI: 10.1139/gen-2016-0159
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  16. Ummul-Nazrah AR, Mohd Hairul MA, Kamin I, Kiew R, Ong PT
    PhytoKeys, 2018.
    PMID: 29780269 DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.98.23903
    Vatica najibiana Ummul-Nazrah (Dipterocarpaceae), from the Relai Forest Reserve, Gua Musang, Kelantan and Gua Tanggang, Merapoh, Pahang, is described and illustrated. This species is Endangered and known from small populations restricted to two isolated karst limestone hills. The type locality, Relai Forest Reserve limestone, is currently under threat from encroaching oil palm plantations and ongoing logging, which, if it continues, will threaten the Kelantan population with extinction. The morphology of V. najibiana and the similar V. odorata subsp. odorata and V. harmandiana is compared.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  17. Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, et al.
    Ecol Evol, 2017 01;7(1):145-188.
    PMID: 28070282 DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2579
    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  18. Kara J, Molina-Acevedo IC, Zanol J, Simon C, Idris I
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e10076.
    PMID: 33150064 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10076
    A vast polychaete fauna is hidden behind complexes of cryptic and pseudo-cryptic species, which has greatly hindered our understanding of species diversity in several regions worldwide. Among the eunicids, Marphysa sanguinea Montagu, 1813 is a typical example, recorded in three oceans and with various species considered its junior synonyms. In South Africa, specimens previously misidentified as M. sanguinea are now known as Marphysa elityeni Lewis & Karageorgopoulos, 2008. Of the six Marphysa Quatrefages, 1865a species recorded from the same region, three have their distributions restricted to South Africa while the others are considered to have worldwide distributions. Here, we evaluated the taxonomic status of the indigenous M. elityeni and investigated the presence of the widespread species Marphysa macintoshi Crossland, 1903 and Marphysa depressa Schmarda, 1861 in South Africa using morphological and molecular data. Our results reveal that M. elityeni is a junior synonym of Marphysa haemasoma, a species previously described from South Africa which is herein reinstated as a valid species. Both M. macintoshi and M. depressa are not present in South Africa and their status as being distributed worldwide deserves further investigation. Marphysa durbanensis Day, 1934 and the new species described here, M. sherlockae n. sp., had been misidentified as M. macintoshi and M. depressa respectively. Thus, the number of Marphysa species with distributions restricted to South Africa increased from three to five. This study reiterates the importance of implementing an integrated taxonomic framework to unravel local biodiversity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  19. Maideen H, Damanhuri A
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2015 Dec;26(2):111-9.
    PMID: 26868714 MyJurnal
    The pteridophyte flora of Langkawi Archipelago consists of 130 species, 1 subspecies and 12 varieties in 68 genera and 27 families. This value represents 22.1% of the 647 taxa at the species level and below reported for Peninsular Malaysia. Of the 143 recorded taxa of pteridophytes at the species level and below, 8 species in 2 genera and 2 families are lycophytes and the other 135 taxa in 66 genera and 25 families are monilophytes or ferns.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity
  20. Dow RA
    Zootaxa, 2014;3795:181-6.
    PMID: 24870471 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3795.2.7
    Onychogomphus marijanmatoki is described from a male from Gunung Mulu National Park, Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. One of only two onychogomphine species known from Borneo, it differs from all others of the group in characters of the genital ligula and terminal appendages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biodiversity*
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