• 1 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Lincoln University College, Kota Bharu, Malaysia
  • 3 Department of Health Promotion and Health Education, Faculty of Public Health, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 4 Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman Malaysia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
  • 5 Department of Public Health, Daffodil International University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • 6 School of Science, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia
  • 7 Department of Regeneration and Medicine, Research Center for Radiation Genome Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2021 02;23(2):317-322.
PMID: 33347732 DOI: 10.1111/jch.14126


Prevalence of pre-hypertension is higher among young adults and may increase the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Music therapy has been investigated to reduce the blood pressure in the hypertensive population; however, its efficacy on blood pressure in pre-hypertensive young adults is not known. Thirty pre-hypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP] = 120-139 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] = 80-89 mmHg) young adults were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups. Music group (N = 15) received music therapy by passive listening to music for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks, along with Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan (a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy or unsaturated fat) and limit the daily sodium intake less than 100 mmol/day. The control group (N = 15) practiced only DASH eating plan and sodium restriction. The SBP, DBP, and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after 4 weeks of intervention. There was a significant reduction in SBP (8.73 mmHg, p 

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.