Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 258 in total

  1. Bibbo D, Klinkovsky T, Penhaker M, Kudrna P, Peter L, Augustynek M, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Jul 25;20(15).
    PMID: 32722397 DOI: 10.3390/s20154139
    In this paper, a new approach for the periodical testing and the functionality evaluation of a fetal heart rate monitor device based on ultrasound principle is proposed. The design and realization of the device are presented, together with the description of its features and functioning tests. In the designed device, a relay element, driven by an electric signal that allows switching at two specific frequencies, is used to simulate the fetus and the mother's heartbeat. The simulator was designed to be compliant with the standard requirements for accurate assessment and measurement of medical devices. The accuracy of the simulated signals was evaluated, and it resulted to be stable and reliable. The generated frequencies show an error of about 0.5% with respect to the nominal one while the accuracy of the test equipment was within ±3% of the test signal set frequency. This value complies with the technical standard for the accuracy of fetal heart rate monitor devices. Moreover, the performed tests and measurements show the correct functionality of the developed simulator. The proposed equipment and testing respect the technical requirements for medical devices. The features of the proposed device make it simple and quick in testing a fetal heart rate monitor, thus providing an efficient way to evaluate and test the correlation capabilities of commercial apparatuses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate; Heart Rate, Fetal*
  2. John AA, Subramanian AP, Jaganathan SK, Sethuraman B
    Indian Heart J, 2015 Nov-Dec;67(6):549-51.
    PMID: 26702684 DOI: 10.1016/j.ihj.2015.07.017
    To process the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and to classify the signals based on heart rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  3. Noraishah Othmanl, Nor Pa' iza M. Hasani, Juhari Mohd Yusof, Roslan Yahya, Mohd Amirul Syafiq
    Flow measurement is a critical element for liquid resources monitoring for various applications in many industrial systems. The purposes of the study are to determine the flow rate of liquid system in flow rig using radiotracer techniques and to compare the result with that obtained by the conventional flow meters. The flow rig consists of 58.7m long and 20cm diameter pipeline that can accommodate about 0.296m3 of liquid. Tap water was used as liquid flow in pipeline and conventional flow meters were also installed at the flow rig. Radiotracer was injected as a sharp pulse into the inlet p.peline. The pulse was monitored at the inlet and various points along the outlet pipeline using collimated scintillation detector. The peak to peak and total count methods were applied for radiotracer techniques and showed the comparable results with conventional flow meter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  4. Sarker MR, Mohamed A, Mohamed R
    Micromachines (Basel), 2016 Sep 23;7(10).
    PMID: 30404344 DOI: 10.3390/mi7100171
    This paper presents a new method for a vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system using a backtracking search algorithm (BSA)-based proportional-integral (PI) voltage controller. This technique eliminates the exhaustive conventional trial-and-error procedure for obtaining optimized parameter values of proportional gain (Kp), and integral gain (Ki) for PI voltage controllers. The generated estimate values of Kp and Ki are executed in the PI voltage controller that is developed through the BSA optimization technique. In this study, mean absolute error (MAE) is used as an objective function to minimize output error for a piezoelectric energy harvesting system (PEHS). The model for the PEHS is designed and analyzed using the BSA optimization technique. The BSA-based PI voltage controller of the PEHS produces a significant improvement in minimizing the output error of the converter and a robust, regulated pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal to convert a MOSFET switch, with the best response in terms of rise time and settling time under various load conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  5. Puthiaparampil T
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):406-408.
    PMID: 32724004
    Collapsing pulse is generally elicited by elevating the patient's arm. However, the pulse becoming stronger on arm elevation is a physiological phenomenon, which is bound to create confusion, if routine lifting of the arm in search of collapsing pulse is practiced. The name 'collapsing pulse' represents only the second component of this sign. It masks the more important first component - the slapping, bounding upstroke, characterised by its other name 'water-hammer pulse'. It is possible to elicit this sign by appreciating the slapping character on routine pulse examination. The insistence on arm lifting in medical school teaching is better avoided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate/physiology*
  6. Müller AM, Wang NX, Yao J, Tan CS, Low ICC, Lim N, et al.
    JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, 2019 10 02;7(10):e14120.
    PMID: 31579026 DOI: 10.2196/14120
    BACKGROUND: Wrist-worn activity trackers are popular, and an increasing number of these devices are equipped with heart rate (HR) measurement capabilities. However, the validity of HR data obtained from such trackers has not been thoroughly assessed outside the laboratory setting.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the validity of HR measures of a high-cost consumer-based tracker (Polar A370) and a low-cost tracker (Tempo HR) in the laboratory and free-living settings.

    METHODS: Participants underwent a laboratory-based cycling protocol while wearing the two trackers and the chest-strapped Polar H10, which acted as criterion. Participants also wore the devices throughout the waking hours of the following day during which they were required to conduct at least one 10-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to ensure variability in the HR signal. We extracted 10-second values from all devices and time-matched HR data from the trackers with those from the Polar H10. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), mean absolute errors, and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) between the criterion and the trackers. We constructed decile plots that compared HR data from Tempo HR and Polar A370 with criterion measures across intensity deciles. We investigated how many HR data points within the MVPA zone (≥64% of maximum HR) were detected by the trackers.

    RESULTS: Of the 57 people screened, 55 joined the study (mean age 30.5 [SD 9.8] years). Tempo HR showed moderate agreement and large errors (laboratory: ICC 0.51 and MAPE 13.00%; free-living: ICC 0.71 and MAPE 10.20%). Polar A370 showed moderate-to-strong agreement and small errors (laboratory: ICC 0.73 and MAPE 6.40%; free-living: ICC 0.83 and MAPE 7.10%). Decile plots indicated increasing differences between Tempo HR and the criterion as HRs increased. Such trend was less pronounced when considering the Polar A370 HR data. Tempo HR identified 62.13% (1872/3013) and 54.27% (5717/10,535) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively. Polar A370 detected 81.09% (2273/2803) and 83.55% (9323/11,158) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: HR data from the examined wrist-worn trackers were reasonably accurate in both the settings, with the Polar A370 showing stronger agreement with the Polar H10 and smaller errors. Inaccuracies increased with increasing HRs; this was pronounced for Tempo HR.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate/physiology*; Heart Rate Determination/methods; Heart Rate Determination/standards; Heart Rate Determination/statistics & numerical data
  7. Acharya UR, Faust O, Sree V, Swapna G, Martis RJ, Kadri NA, et al.
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2014;113(1):55-68.
    PMID: 24119391 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.08.017
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate*
  8. Boon KH, Khalil-Hani M, Malarvili MB, Sia CW
    Comput Methods Programs Biomed, 2016 Oct;134:187-96.
    PMID: 27480743 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2016.07.016
    This paper proposes a method that predicts the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF), using heart rate variability (HRV) segments that are shorter than those applied in existing methods, while maintaining good prediction accuracy. PAF is a common cardiac arrhythmia that increases the health risk of a patient, and the development of an accurate predictor of the onset of PAF is clinical important because it increases the possibility to stabilize (electrically) and prevent the onset of atrial arrhythmias with different pacing techniques. We investigate the effect of HRV features extracted from different lengths of HRV segments prior to PAF onset with the proposed PAF prediction method. The pre-processing stage of the predictor includes QRS detection, HRV quantification and ectopic beat correction. Time-domain, frequency-domain, non-linear and bispectrum features are then extracted from the quantified HRV. In the feature selection, the HRV feature set and classifier parameters are optimized simultaneously using an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm (GA). Both full feature set and statistically significant feature subset are optimized by GA respectively. For the statistically significant feature subset, Mann-Whitney U test is used to filter non-statistical significance features that cannot pass the statistical test at 20% significant level. The final stage of our predictor is the classifier that is based on support vector machine (SVM). A 10-fold cross-validation is applied in performance evaluation, and the proposed method achieves 79.3% prediction accuracy using 15-minutes HRV segment. This accuracy is comparable to that achieved by existing methods that use 30-minutes HRV segments, most of which achieves accuracy of around 80%. More importantly, our method significantly outperforms those that applied segments shorter than 30 minutes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate*
  9. Chandima Gomes, Muhammad Noh Hamzah
    This paper presents the chaotic pulse train (CPT) waveforms of the vertical electric field generated by lightning observed in Malaysia. Focusing on the position where these electric field changes occur in a number of cloud to ground (CG) flashes, these CPTs were detected in different ways of occurrences, durations, intensities and amplitudes. Seventy-six chaotic pulse trains were found in this study from a sum of 172 CG flash records from three thunderstorm days. The fast field antenna was employed to do the field measurements. As opposed to the typical occurrence of chaotic pulse trains prior to subsequent strokes as reported in the literature, this study has found chaotic pulse trains occurring in different places along the CG electric field waveforms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  10. Saiful Mohammad Iezham Suhaimi, Nouruddeen Bashir, Nor Asiah Muhamad, Mohd Aizam Talib
    Contaminated and ageing transmission line insulators often suffer from temporary or permanent loss of their insulating properties due to flashover resulting in power system failure. Surface discharges are precursors to flashover. To pre-empt any occurrence of flashovers, utility companies monitor the conditions of their insulators. There are numerous insulator surface monitoring techniques such as Leakage Current, Acoustics, and Infrared. However, these techniques may not be suitable for in-situ condition monitoring of the insulators as they are prone to noise, affected by environmental conditions or contact methods. Monitoring of the UV signals emitted by the surface discharges of these insulators has been reported to be a promising technique. However, comprehensive studies on this technique is lacking, especially on aged insulators. This paper investigated the UV signals of contaminated and aged insulators detected during surface discharge activities using UV pulse method. The time and frequency domain of the UV signals were analysed for a group of insulator samples having varying levels of contamination and phases of ageing. Results show that there is a strong correlation between the contamination level and ageing of the insulators with the amplitude and harmonic components of the UV signals. This correlation can useful to monitor in-service insulator surface conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  11. Zulkifli Yusop, Harisaweni, Fadhilah Yusof
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:87-97.
    Rainfall intensity is the main input variable in various hydrological analysis and modeling. Unfortunately, the quality of rainfall data is often poor and reliable data records are available at coarse intervals such as yearly, monthly and daily. Short interval rainfall records are scarce because of high cost and low reliability of the measurement and the monitoring systems. One way to solve this problem is by disaggregating the coarse intervals to generate the short one using the stochastic method. This paper describes the use of the Bartlett Lewis Rectangular Pulse (BLRP) model. The method was used to disaggregate 10 years of daily data for generating hourly data from 5 rainfall stations in Kelantan as representative area affected by monsoon period and 5 rainfall stations in Damansara affected by inter-monsoon period. The models were evaluated on their ability to reproduce standard and extreme rainfall model statistics derived from the historical record over disaggregation simulation results. The disaggregation of daily to hourly rainfall produced monthly and daily means and variances that closely match the historical records. However, for the disaggregation of daily to hourly rainfall, the standard deviation values are lower than the historical ones. Despite the marked differences in the standard deviation, both data series exhibit similar patterns and the model adequately preserve the trends of all the properties used in evaluating its performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  12. Field AP, Gill N, Macadam P, Plews D
    Sports (Basel), 2019 Aug 01;7(8).
    PMID: 31375020 DOI: 10.3390/sports7080187
    The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the thigh during submaximal running. Twenty endurance-trained runners (40.8 ± 8.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.7 m, 75.4 ± 9.2 kg) completed six submaximal eight-minute running trials unloaded and with WRs of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% body mass (BM), in a random order. The use of a WR resulted in a 1.6 ± 0.6% increase in oxygen consumption (VO2) for every 1% BM of additional load. Inferential based analysis found that the loading of ≥3% BM was needed to elicit any substantial responses in VO2, with an increase that was likely to be moderate in scale (effect size (ES) ± 90% confidential interval (CI): 0.24 ± 0.07). Using heart rate data, a training load score was extrapolated to quantify the amount of internal stress. For every 1% BM of WR, there is an extra 0.17 ± 0.06 estimated increase in training load. A WR ≥3% of BM was needed to elicit substantial responses in lactate production, with an increase which was very likely to be large in scale (ES ± 90% CI: 0.41 ± 0.18). A thigh-positioned WR provides a running-specific overload with loads ≥3% BM, resulting in substantial changes in metabolic responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  13. Horiguchi T, Masui Y, Zan MSD
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Mar 27;19(7).
    PMID: 30934806 DOI: 10.3390/s19071497
    Distributed strain and temperature can be measured by using local Brillouin backscatter in optical fibers based on the strain and temperature dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift. The technique of analyzing the local Brillion backscatter in the time domain is called Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). Although the best spatial resolution of classic BOTDR remains at around 1 m, some recent BOTDR techniques have attained as high as cm-scale spatial resolution. Our laboratory has proposed and demonstrated a high-spatial-resolution BOTDR called phase-shift pulse BOTDR (PSP-BOTDR), using a pair of probe pulses modulated with binary phase-shift keying. PSP-BOTDR is based on the cross-correlation of Brillouin backscatter and on the subtraction of cross-correlations obtained from the Brillouin scatterings evoked by each phase-modulated probe pulse. Although PSP-BOTDR has attained 20-cm spatial resolution, the spectral analysis method of PSP-BOTDR has not been discussed in detail. This article gives in-depth analysis of the Brillouin backscatter and the correlations of the backscatters of the PSP-BOTDR. Based on the analysis, we propose new spectral analysis methods for PSP-BOTDR. The analysis and experiments show that the proposed methods give better frequency resolution than before.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  14. Garweg C, Khelae SK, Chan JYS, Chinitz L, Ritter P, Johansen JB, et al.
    J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 2021 07;32(7):1947-1957.
    PMID: 33928713 DOI: 10.1111/jce.15061
    INTRODUCTION: MARVEL 2 assessed the efficacy of mechanical atrial sensing by a ventricular leadless pacemaker, enabling a VDD pacing mode. The behavior of the enhanced MARVEL 2 algorithm during variable atrio-ventricular conduction (AVC) and/or arrhythmias has not been characterized and is the focus of this study.

    METHODS: Of the 75 patients enrolled in the MARVEL 2 study, 73 had a rhythm assessment and were included in the analysis. The enhanced MARVEL 2 algorithm included a mode-switching algorithm that automatically switches between VDD and ventricular only antibradycardia pacing (VVI)-40 depending upon AVC status.

    RESULTS: Forty-two patients (58%) had persistent third degree AV block (AVB), 18 (25%) had 1:1 AVC, 5 (7%) had variable AVC status, and 8 (11%) had atrial arrhythmias. Among the 42 patients with persistent third degree AVB, the median ventricular pacing (VP) percentage was 99.9% compared to 0.2% among those with 1:1 AVC. As AVC status changed, the algorithm switched to VDD when the ventricular rate dropped less than 40 bpm. During atrial fibrillation (AF) with ventricular response greater than 40 bpm, VVI-40 mode was maintained. No pauses longer than 1500 ms were observed. Frequent ventricular premature beats reduced the percentage of AV synchrony. During AF, the atrial signal was of low amplitude and there was infrequent sensing.

    CONCLUSION: The mode switching algorithm reduced VP in patients with 1:1 AVC and appropriately switched to VDD during AV block. No pacing safety issues were observed during arrhythmias.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  15. Alyan E, Combe T, Awang Rambli DR, Sulaiman S, Merienne F, Diyana N
    PMID: 34769937 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph182111420
    The authors of this paper sought to investigate the impact of virtual forest therapy based on realistic versus dreamlike environments on reducing stress levels. Today, people are facing an increase in stress levels in everyday life, which may be due to personal life, work environment, or urban area expansion. Previous studies have reported that urban environments demand more attention and mental workload than natural environments. However, evidence for the effects of natural environments as virtual forest therapy on stress levels has not yet been fully explored. In this study, a total of 20 healthy participants completed a letter-detection test to increase their stress level and were then randomly assigned to two different virtual environments representing realistic and dreamlike graphics. The participants' stress levels were assessed using two physiological methods that measured heart rate and skin conductance levels and one psychological method through the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. These indicators were analyzed using a sample t-test and a one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that virtual forest environments could have positive stress-relieving effects. However, realistic graphics were more efficient in reducing stress. These findings contribute to growing forest therapy concepts and provide new directions for future forest therapy research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate
  16. Doufesh H, Ibrahim F, Ismail NA, Wan Ahmad WA
    J Altern Complement Med, 2014 Jul;20(7):558-62.
    PMID: 24827587 DOI: 10.1089/acm.2013.0426
    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of Muslim prayer (salat) on the α relative power (RPα) of electroencephalography (EEG) and autonomic nervous activity and the relationship between them by using spectral analysis of EEG and heart rate variability (HRV).

    METHODS: Thirty healthy Muslim men participated in the study. Their electrocardiograms and EEGs were continuously recorded before, during, and after salat practice with a computer-based data acquisition system (MP150, BIOPAC Systems Inc., Camino Goleta, California). Power spectral analysis was conducted to extract the RPα and HRV components.

    RESULTS: During salat, a significant increase (p

    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate/physiology*
  17. Abu Hanifah R, Mohamed MN, Jaafar Z, Mohsein NA, Jalaludin MY, Majid HA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(12):e82893.
    PMID: 24349388 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082893
    BACKGROUND: In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR) after step test in Malaysian secondary school students.

    METHODS: In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR.

    RESULTS: For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008).

    CONCLUSION: There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate/physiology*
  18. Najafabadi FS, Zahedi E, Mohd Ali MA
    Comput Biol Med, 2006 Mar;36(3):241-52.
    PMID: 16446158
    In this paper, an algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA) for extracting the fetal heart rate (FHR) from maternal abdominal electrodes is presented. Three abdominal ECG channels are used to extract the FHR in three steps: first preprocessing procedures such as DC cancellation and low-pass filtering are applied to remove noise. Then the algorithm for multiple unknown source extraction (AMUSE) algorithm is fed to extract the sources from the observation signals include fetal ECG (FECG). Finally, FHR is extracted from FECG. The method is shown to be capable of completely revealing FECG R-peaks from observation leads even with a SNR=-200dB using semi-synthetic data.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate, Fetal*
  19. Palaniappan R, Phon-Amnuaisuk S, Eswaran C
    Int J Cardiol, 2015;190:262-3.
    PMID: 25932800 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.175
    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate/physiology*
  20. Chandran R, Serra-Serra V, Sellers SM, Redman CW
    Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 1993 Feb;100(2):139-44.
    PMID: 8476805
    OBJECTIVE: To establish reference ranges for the human fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA PI) for the local obstetric population, and to compare computerised antenatal fetal heart rate (FHR) analysis with the MCA PI as indicators of fetal compromise.

    DESIGN: Prospective data collection for selected patients.

    SETTING: High risk pregnancy unit of a teaching hospital.

    SUBJECTS: Group 1 consisted of 18 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Group 2 consisted of 27 women admitted to the high risk pregnancy unit over a 9 month period with intrauterine growth retardation and other related problems; all these women were delivered by prelabour caesarean section.

    INTERVENTION: Serial Duplex sonography to determine fetal MCA PI in Groups 1 and 2. Serial FHR analysis using computerised numerical techniques in Group 2 only.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serial MCA PI values from 24 to 39 completed weeks of gestation in Group 1. Comparison of serial MCA PI values with FHR analysis in relation to fetal outcome in Group 2.

    RESULTS: In Group 1 the MCA PI diminished significantly as gestation advanced from 1.73 (SD 0.25) at 24 weeks to 1.38 (SD 0.26) at 39 weeks (P < 0.01). In Group 2 eleven babies were hypoxaemic at delivery: all had low MCA PI values while only nine had an abnormal FHR prior to delivery.

    CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, there is a fall in the fetal MCA PI with advancing gestation which probably reflects a decreasing vascular resistance to fetal cerebral blood flow. Hypoxaemia at delivery appeared to be better recognised by the fetal MCA flow velocity waveform than the FHR analysis. This increased sensitivity, however, was achieved at the expense of a reduced specificity. Larger studies are needed to confirm the findings of this preliminary investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Heart Rate, Fetal/physiology*
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