OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the validity of HR measures of a high-cost consumer-based tracker (Polar A370) and a low-cost tracker (Tempo HR) in the laboratory and free-living settings.
METHODS: Participants underwent a laboratory-based cycling protocol while wearing the two trackers and the chest-strapped Polar H10, which acted as criterion. Participants also wore the devices throughout the waking hours of the following day during which they were required to conduct at least one 10-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to ensure variability in the HR signal. We extracted 10-second values from all devices and time-matched HR data from the trackers with those from the Polar H10. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), mean absolute errors, and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) between the criterion and the trackers. We constructed decile plots that compared HR data from Tempo HR and Polar A370 with criterion measures across intensity deciles. We investigated how many HR data points within the MVPA zone (≥64% of maximum HR) were detected by the trackers.
RESULTS: Of the 57 people screened, 55 joined the study (mean age 30.5 [SD 9.8] years). Tempo HR showed moderate agreement and large errors (laboratory: ICC 0.51 and MAPE 13.00%; free-living: ICC 0.71 and MAPE 10.20%). Polar A370 showed moderate-to-strong agreement and small errors (laboratory: ICC 0.73 and MAPE 6.40%; free-living: ICC 0.83 and MAPE 7.10%). Decile plots indicated increasing differences between Tempo HR and the criterion as HRs increased. Such trend was less pronounced when considering the Polar A370 HR data. Tempo HR identified 62.13% (1872/3013) and 54.27% (5717/10,535) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively. Polar A370 detected 81.09% (2273/2803) and 83.55% (9323/11,158) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: HR data from the examined wrist-worn trackers were reasonably accurate in both the settings, with the Polar A370 showing stronger agreement with the Polar H10 and smaller errors. Inaccuracies increased with increasing HRs; this was pronounced for Tempo HR.
METHODS: Of the 75 patients enrolled in the MARVEL 2 study, 73 had a rhythm assessment and were included in the analysis. The enhanced MARVEL 2 algorithm included a mode-switching algorithm that automatically switches between VDD and ventricular only antibradycardia pacing (VVI)-40 depending upon AVC status.
RESULTS: Forty-two patients (58%) had persistent third degree AV block (AVB), 18 (25%) had 1:1 AVC, 5 (7%) had variable AVC status, and 8 (11%) had atrial arrhythmias. Among the 42 patients with persistent third degree AVB, the median ventricular pacing (VP) percentage was 99.9% compared to 0.2% among those with 1:1 AVC. As AVC status changed, the algorithm switched to VDD when the ventricular rate dropped less than 40 bpm. During atrial fibrillation (AF) with ventricular response greater than 40 bpm, VVI-40 mode was maintained. No pauses longer than 1500 ms were observed. Frequent ventricular premature beats reduced the percentage of AV synchrony. During AF, the atrial signal was of low amplitude and there was infrequent sensing.
CONCLUSION: The mode switching algorithm reduced VP in patients with 1:1 AVC and appropriately switched to VDD during AV block. No pacing safety issues were observed during arrhythmias.
METHODS: Thirty healthy Muslim men participated in the study. Their electrocardiograms and EEGs were continuously recorded before, during, and after salat practice with a computer-based data acquisition system (MP150, BIOPAC Systems Inc., Camino Goleta, California). Power spectral analysis was conducted to extract the RPα and HRV components.
RESULTS: During salat, a significant increase (p
METHODS: In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min) and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min) were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR.
RESULTS: For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024) in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008).
CONCLUSION: There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of healthy living which should start from young.
DESIGN: Prospective data collection for selected patients.
SETTING: High risk pregnancy unit of a teaching hospital.
SUBJECTS: Group 1 consisted of 18 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Group 2 consisted of 27 women admitted to the high risk pregnancy unit over a 9 month period with intrauterine growth retardation and other related problems; all these women were delivered by prelabour caesarean section.
INTERVENTION: Serial Duplex sonography to determine fetal MCA PI in Groups 1 and 2. Serial FHR analysis using computerised numerical techniques in Group 2 only.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serial MCA PI values from 24 to 39 completed weeks of gestation in Group 1. Comparison of serial MCA PI values with FHR analysis in relation to fetal outcome in Group 2.
RESULTS: In Group 1 the MCA PI diminished significantly as gestation advanced from 1.73 (SD 0.25) at 24 weeks to 1.38 (SD 0.26) at 39 weeks (P < 0.01). In Group 2 eleven babies were hypoxaemic at delivery: all had low MCA PI values while only nine had an abnormal FHR prior to delivery.
CONCLUSION: In normal pregnancy, there is a fall in the fetal MCA PI with advancing gestation which probably reflects a decreasing vascular resistance to fetal cerebral blood flow. Hypoxaemia at delivery appeared to be better recognised by the fetal MCA flow velocity waveform than the FHR analysis. This increased sensitivity, however, was achieved at the expense of a reduced specificity. Larger studies are needed to confirm the findings of this preliminary investigation.