OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the validity of HR measures of a high-cost consumer-based tracker (Polar A370) and a low-cost tracker (Tempo HR) in the laboratory and free-living settings.
METHODS: Participants underwent a laboratory-based cycling protocol while wearing the two trackers and the chest-strapped Polar H10, which acted as criterion. Participants also wore the devices throughout the waking hours of the following day during which they were required to conduct at least one 10-min bout of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to ensure variability in the HR signal. We extracted 10-second values from all devices and time-matched HR data from the trackers with those from the Polar H10. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), mean absolute errors, and mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) between the criterion and the trackers. We constructed decile plots that compared HR data from Tempo HR and Polar A370 with criterion measures across intensity deciles. We investigated how many HR data points within the MVPA zone (≥64% of maximum HR) were detected by the trackers.
RESULTS: Of the 57 people screened, 55 joined the study (mean age 30.5 [SD 9.8] years). Tempo HR showed moderate agreement and large errors (laboratory: ICC 0.51 and MAPE 13.00%; free-living: ICC 0.71 and MAPE 10.20%). Polar A370 showed moderate-to-strong agreement and small errors (laboratory: ICC 0.73 and MAPE 6.40%; free-living: ICC 0.83 and MAPE 7.10%). Decile plots indicated increasing differences between Tempo HR and the criterion as HRs increased. Such trend was less pronounced when considering the Polar A370 HR data. Tempo HR identified 62.13% (1872/3013) and 54.27% (5717/10,535) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively. Polar A370 detected 81.09% (2273/2803) and 83.55% (9323/11,158) of all MVPA time points in the laboratory phase and free-living phase, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: HR data from the examined wrist-worn trackers were reasonably accurate in both the settings, with the Polar A370 showing stronger agreement with the Polar H10 and smaller errors. Inaccuracies increased with increasing HRs; this was pronounced for Tempo HR.
METHODS: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was conducted on 29 healthy sedentary adults (seven males and 22 females) in a 12-week exercise program. They were randomly assigned to group A (75 min/week, N.=15) or group B (150 min/week, N.=14) of moderate intensity aerobic exercise groups. HRR at 1-minute (HRR1), HRR at 2-minute (HRR2), and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were measured pre- and post-intervention.
RESULTS: The improvements of HRR1 and HRR2 were seen in both groups but was only significant (P<0.05) for group A with HRR1, -4.07 bpm (post 24.47±6.42 - pre 20.40±5.51, P=0.018) and HHR2, -3.93 bpm (post 43.40±13.61 - pre 39.47±10.68, P=0.046). Group B showed increment of HRR1, -1.14 bpm (post 21.14±5.35 - pre 20.00±6.30, P=0.286) and HRR2, -2.5 bpm, (post 39.36±8.01 - pre 36.86±9.57, P=0.221). Improvement of the VO2peak was only significant in group B with an increment of 1.52±2.61 (P=0.049).
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study suggests that improvements in heart rate recovery (HRR1 and HRR2) among sedentary healthy adults can be achieved by engaging in moderate intensity exercise at a dose lower than the current recommended guidelines. The lower dose seems to be more attainable and may encourage exercise compliance. Future studies should further explore the effects of different exercise volumes on HRR in a larger sample size and also by controlling for BMI or gender.
METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched from inception to June 2022. Studies that investigated non-invasive parameters of arterial stiffness and autonomic function using beat-to-beat cardiovascular signals over a period of > 5min were included. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE criteria. Two authors screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts independently.
RESULTS: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive overview of experimental design for assessing autonomic function in terms of baroreflex sensitivity and beat-to-beat cardiovascular variabilities, as well as arterial stiffness, was presented. Alterations in non-invasive indicators of autonomic function, which included baroreflex sensitivity, beat-to-beat cardiovascular variabilities and hemodynamic changes in response to autonomic challenges, as well as arterial stiffness, were identified in individuals with hypertension. A mixed result was found in terms of the association between non-invasive quantitative autonomic indices and arterial stiffness in hypertensive individuals. Nine out of 12 studies which quantified baroreflex sensitivity revealed a significant association with arterial stiffness parameters. Three studies estimated beat-to-beat heart rate variability and only one study reported a significant relationship with arterial stiffness indices. Three out of five studies which studied beat-to-beat blood pressure variability showed a significant association with arterial structural changes. One study revealed that hemodynamic changes in response to autonomic challenges were significantly correlated with arterial stiffness parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: The current review demonstrated alteration in autonomic function, which encompasses both the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation of sinus node function and vasomotor tone (derived from beat-to-beat cardiovascular signals) in hypertension, and a significant association between some of these parameters with arterial stiffness. By employing non-invasive measurements to monitor changes in autonomic function and arterial remodeling in individuals with hypertension, we would be able to enhance our ability to identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Understanding the intricate relationships among these cardiovascular variability measures and arterial stiffness could contribute toward better individualized treatment for hypertension in the future.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO ID: CRD42022336703. Date of registration: 12/06/2022.
METHODS: Fifty-one participants performed the standard incremental treadmill exercise in a controlled laboratory setting with 12-lead ECG attached to the patient's body and wearing wrist-worn PPG trackers.
RESULTS: At each stage, the absolute percentage error of the PPG was within 10% of the standard acceptable range. Further analysis using a linear mixed model, which accounts for individual variations, revealed that PPG yielded the best performance at the baseline low-intensity exercise. As the stages progressed, heart rate validity decreased but was regained during recovery. The reliability was moderate to excellent.
CONCLUSIONS: Low-cost trackers AMAZFIT Cor and Bip validity and reliability were within acceptable ranges, especially during low-intensity exercise among patients with ischemic heart disease recovering from cardiac procedures. Though using the tracker as part of the diagnosis tool still requires more supporting studies, it can potentially be used as a self-monitoring tool with precautions.
METHODS: Of the 75 patients enrolled in the MARVEL 2 study, 73 had a rhythm assessment and were included in the analysis. The enhanced MARVEL 2 algorithm included a mode-switching algorithm that automatically switches between VDD and ventricular only antibradycardia pacing (VVI)-40 depending upon AVC status.
RESULTS: Forty-two patients (58%) had persistent third degree AV block (AVB), 18 (25%) had 1:1 AVC, 5 (7%) had variable AVC status, and 8 (11%) had atrial arrhythmias. Among the 42 patients with persistent third degree AVB, the median ventricular pacing (VP) percentage was 99.9% compared to 0.2% among those with 1:1 AVC. As AVC status changed, the algorithm switched to VDD when the ventricular rate dropped less than 40 bpm. During atrial fibrillation (AF) with ventricular response greater than 40 bpm, VVI-40 mode was maintained. No pauses longer than 1500 ms were observed. Frequent ventricular premature beats reduced the percentage of AV synchrony. During AF, the atrial signal was of low amplitude and there was infrequent sensing.
CONCLUSION: The mode switching algorithm reduced VP in patients with 1:1 AVC and appropriately switched to VDD during AV block. No pacing safety issues were observed during arrhythmias.
DESIGN: fNIRS data were recorded from 23 infants with no known hearing loss, aged 2 to 10 months. Speech syllables were presented using a habituation/dishabituation test paradigm: the infant's heart rate response was first habituated by repeating blocks of one speech sound; then, the heart rate response was dishabituated with the contrasting (novel) speech sound. This stimulus presentation sequence was repeated for as long as the infants were asleep.
RESULTS: The group-level average heart rate response to the novel stimulus was greater than that to the habituated first sound, indicating that sleeping infants were able to discriminate the speech sound contrast. A significant adaptation of the heart rate responses was seen over the session duration.
CONCLUSION: The dishabituation response could be a valuable marker for speech discrimination, especially when used in conjunction with the fNIRS hemodynamic response.