• 1 Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India
  • 2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Chennai 603110, India
  • 3 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
  • 4 Department of Chemical Engineering, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering (Autonomous), Hosur 635130, Tamil Nadu, India
  • 5 Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India
  • 6 Puritek Research Institute, Puritec Co., Ltd., Nanjing, China
  • 7 Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; College of Technology and Engineering, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Mechanical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tang, Hong Kong
  • 8 Research Center for Smart Sustainable Circular Economy, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
Bioresour Technol, 2021 Dec;342:126021.
PMID: 34600315 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126021


Microbial fermentation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions is currently the prominent pathway for biohydrogen production. Organic matter present in waste residues is regarded as an economic feedstock for biohydrogen production by dark and photo fermentative bacteria. Agricultural residues, fruit wastes, vegetable wastes, industrial wastewaters, and other livestock residues are some of the organic wastes most commonly used for biohydrogen production due to their higher organic content and biodegradability. Appropriate pretreatments are required to enhance the performance of biohydrogen from complex organic wastes. Biohydrogen production could also be enhanced by optimizing operation conditions and the addition of essential nutrients and nanoparticles. This review describes the pathways of biohydrogen production, discusses the effect of organic waste sources used and microbes involved on biohydrogen production, along with addressing the key parameters, advantages, and difficulties in each biohydrogen production pathway.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.